Havana syndrome on topic


Havana syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that include ringing in the ears, fatigue and dizziness. United States and Canadian embassy staff first reported the syndrome in Havana, Cuba, in late 2016, and subsequently in other countries. The U.S. Department of State has referred to the events as "unexplained health incidents" or UHIs, while the director of the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has publicly called them attacks.In 2018, U.S. diplomats in China reported problems similar to those reported in Cuba, as did undercover CIA agents working in other countries with partner agencies on missions aimed at countering Russian covert operations.A study of affected diplomats in Cuba published in the medical journal JAMA in 2019 found evidence that the diplomats possibly experienced some form of brain injury but did not determine the trauma's cause or specific character. While there is no expert consensus on the syndrome's cause, a co-author of the JAMA study considered microwave weapons "a main suspect". An expert committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded in December 2020 that microwave energy (specifically, directed pulsed RF energy) "appears to be the most plausible mechanism in explaining these cases among those that the committee considered" but that "each possible cause remains speculative." In 2021, investigators considered new evidence, including blood markers from patients that had recently been collected and analyzed systematically.The U.S. intelligence services have not reached a consensus on or a formal determination of the cause of the Havana syndrome, though U.S. intelligence and government officials have expressed suspicions to the press that Russian military intelligence is responsible.
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