Outdoor Steps, Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque/Former Latin Cathedral Of Saint Nicholas, Walled City, Famagusta, Turkish Republic Of North Cyprus.(PID:49467662716) Source
posted by DM PHOTOGRAPHY alias [email protected] on Friday 31st of January 2020 10:14:15 AM
The Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque originally known as the Latin Cathedral of Saint Nicholas and later as the Saint Sophia (Ayasofya) Mosque of Famagusta, is the largest medieval building in Famagusta and one of the most impressive Frankish buildings still to survive in the Near East. The most impressive edifice in Famagusta if not the whole island, this beautiful gothic Catholic Cathedral was built during the Lusignan period and dedicated to St. Nicholas. Early History The Lusignan dynasty ruled as Kings of Cyprus from 1192 to 1489 and brought with them the latest French taste in construction, notably the developments in Gothic architecture. Possibly designed by the Frenchman Jean Langlois and thought to be built on the remains of an earlier church, the cathedral was constructed from 1298 to 1312 and consecrated in 1328. In 1372, the Lusignans would be crowned as Kings of Cyprus in the St. Sophia Cathedral in Nicosia and then crowned as Kings of Jerusalem in the St. Nicholas Cathedral in Famagusta. The building is built in Rayonnant Gothic style, quite rare outside France. The historic tie between France and Cyprus is evidenced by its parallels to French archetypes such as the Notre-Dame de Reims. Indeed, so strong is the resemblance, that the building has been dubbed “The Reims of North Cyprus”. In style it also resembles the St. Sophia in Nicosia and the Bellapais Abbey overlooking Kyrenia. It was built with three doors, twin towers over the aisles anda flat roof, typical of Crusader architecture. Several royals were buried here, including King James II of Cyprus and his infant son James III, the last two Lusignan rulers, in 1473 and 1474. And it was at this cathedral that the widow of James II, Caterina Cornaro yielded to the pressure of the Venetians, renounced her royal rights and ceded Cyprus to the Doge of Venice in 1489. Sometime after 1480, a meeting chamber, known as the Loggia Bembo, was added to the south-west corner of the cathedral. Notable for its elaborately moulded entrance with slender pillars in marble, it is in an architectural style that departs considerably from that of the cathedral proper. The association with the Bembo family, some of whom held prominent positions in Cyprus, is shown by their heraldic devices on the building. To enhance the Loggia, late antique fragments in marble probably brought from Salamis, were placed as seats each side of the entrance. Ottoman Dynasty The upper parts of the cathedral’s two towers suffered from earthquakes and were badly damaged during the Ottoman conquest. With the Venetians defeated and Famagusta fallen by August 1571, Cyprus fell under Ottoman control and the cathedral was converted into a mosque, a mihrab and minaret added and in turn renamed the St. Sophia Mosque of Famagusta. Inside the mosque, in accordance with Muslim practice, all images of the human form were removed, and any painting and frescos on the walls were covered with plaster – who knows what treasures remain hidden underneath. Some stained glass was replaced by clear glass, and as in all mosques, the floor of the church was covered by a carpet, leaving a possibility that some gravestones remain to this day. A few tombs can still be identified today in the north aisle. Nevertheless, the architecture remained entirely intact and its use as a mosque spared it from the Baroque additions and 19th-century restorations that were inflicted on most European cathedrals. Thus the building is still a rare example of pure Gothic architecture. The name continued in use until 1954, when, like its sister in Nicosia, the mosque was renamed, and is today known as the Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque, after the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire who led its forces against the Venetians in Cyprus in the 1570 Ottoman conquest. What to See The main entrance to the cathedral converted mosque is at the western end, on the eastern side of the famous Namik Kemal square where this grand monument is located, in the town centre. The cathedral’s façade in honey-coloured stone, makes for an impressive sight as one emerges from the narrow streets of Famagusta. The west front has three shallow porches, the centre wider than the others. Above each of them is a plinth, which is assumed to have been for stone statues, most likely of Biblical Saints as in the Notre Dame de Paris. This style of ecclesiastical architecture was known as the ‘Decorative Period’. Over the centre porch is a charming six light window with decorative tracery and above that, a rose window – a common feature of church buildings of the time, a similar example of which can also be seen in the refractory at Bellapais Abbey. The vast amount of carved stonework over the porches is very impressive. The side doors are topped by tall blind double light windows. The interior of the cathedral has a pleasing simplicity about it, over fifty metres in length and near to twenty metres wide with six columns on each side supporting the vaulting. The walls have been cleaned and the stonework remains bare. It is without transepts and has a nave with two side aisles and a triple apse – the very nave that the Lusignans were crowned as Kings of Cyprus. Two chapels were added on the south and north wings. A unique inscription on a buttress beside the south door can be found which records the progress of construction in 1311. The entire floor is carpeted with the exception of one small section in the northern apse where can be found the tombstone covering the last resting place of the Diocese of Famagusta Itier of Nabinaux, who is said to have died of a chill caught after bathing in the sea in 1365, depicted holding his pastoral staff. It is believed other mortal remains buried beneath the concealed flagstones were thrown out after the Ottoman conquest, however what still remains underneath the carpets today is not known. The most noticeable features outside are the twin bell towers. They once had fine windows, but the tracery has now all but disappeared. Only the lower sections of the towers survived, and the north tower has been topped with a slender minaret. Look closely and you can still see damage caused by the Ottoman siege. As is customary in the Eastern Mediterranean, the roof build is flat. The parvis is shaded by an ancient Ficus Sycomorus tree, reputedly the oldest living tree on the island of Cyprus. The plaza in front of the cathedral-mosque has been pedestrianised, and the outdoor cafés provide vantage points from which to admire the façade at leisure and have a spot of lunch. The famous Cathedral of Saint Nicholas appears in several works of literature, including Kuraj by the Italian writer Silvia Di Natale and Sunrise by the British author Victoria Hislop. This attraction is a must-see on your NCY visit. Famagusta (/ˌfæməˈɡʊstə, ˌfɑː-/; Greek: Αμμόχωστος, romanized: Ammochostos locally [aˈmːoxostos]; Turkish: Mağusa [maˈusa], or Gazimağusa [ɡaːzimaˈusa]) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. It is located east of Nicosia and possesses the deepest harbour of the island. During the Middle Ages (especially under the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice), Famagusta was the island's most important port city and a gateway to trade with the ports of the Levant, from where the Silk Road merchants carried their goods to Western Europe. The old walled city and parts of the modern city are currently controlled by the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as part of its Gazimağusa District, of which it is the capital, but internationally recognised as a part of the Republic of Cyprus. Name In antiquity, the town was known as Arsinoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόη), after the Greek queen Arsinoe II of Egypt, and was mentioned by that name by Strabo. In the 3rd century book Stadiasmus Maris Magni, is written as Ammochostos (Αμμόχωστος), meaning "hidden in [the] sand", which is how Greeks still call it. This name developed into Famagusta (originally Famagouste in French and Famagosta in Italian), used in Western European languages, and to its Turkish name, Mağusa. In Turkish, the city is also called Gazimağusa; Gazi means warrior in Turkish (ultimately from Arabic, meaning one who fights in a holy war), and the city has been officially awarded with the title after 1974 (compare Gaziantep). The old town is nicknamed "the city of 365 churches" owing to a legend that at its peak, Famagusta boasted one church for each day of the year. History The city was founded around 274 BC, after the serious damage to Salamis by an earthquake, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus and named "Arsinoe" after his sister. Arsinoe was described as a "fishing town" by Strabo in his Geographica in the first century BC. It remained a small fishing village for a long time. Later, as a result of the gradual evacuation of Salamis due to the Arab invasion led by Muawiyah I, it developed into a small port. Medieval Famagusta Palazzo del Provveditore (the Royal Palace) entrance, Famagusta. Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1359) was converted into a mosque in 1571 and renamed as the Sinan Pasha Mosque. The turning point for Famagusta was 1192 with the onset of Lusignan rule. It was during this period that Famagusta developed as a fully-fledged town. It increased in importance to the Eastern Mediterranean due to its natural harbour and the walls that protected its inner town. Its population began to increase. This development accelerated in the 13th century as the town became a centre of commerce for both the East and West. An influx of Christian refugees fleeing the downfall of Acre (1291) in Palestine transformed it from a tiny village into one of the richest cities in Christendom. In 1372 the port was seized by Genoa and in 1489 by Venice. This commercial activity turned Famagusta into a place where merchants and ship owners led lives of luxury. The belief that people's wealth could be measured by the churches they built inspired these merchants to have churches built in varying styles. These churches, which still exist, were the reason Famagusta came to be known as "the district of churches". The development of the town focused on the social lives of the wealthy people and was centred upon the Lusignan palace, the cathedral, the Square and the harbour. Territories, colonies and trade routes of the Republic of Genoa Territories, colonies and trade routes of the Republic of Venice View of Famagusta in the 1480s, from Beschreibung der Reise von Konstanz nach Jerusalem Ottoman Famagusta The port of Famagusta, engraving from the book of Olfert Dapper "Description exact des iles des l'Archipel", Amsterdam, 1703. Further information: Marco Antonio Bragadin In 1570–1571, Famagusta was the last stronghold in Venetian Cyprus to hold out against the Turks under Mustafa Pasha. It resisted a siege of thirteen months and a terrible bombardment, until at last the garrison surrendered. The Ottoman forces had lost 50,000 men, including Mustafa Pasha's son. Although the surrender terms had stipulated that the Venetian forces be allowed to return home, the Venetian commander, Marco Antonio Bragadin, was flayed alive, his lieutenant Tiepolo was hanged, and many other Christians were killed. Famagusta citadel walls With the advent of the Ottoman rule, Latins lost their privileged status in Famagusta and were expelled from the city. Greek Cypriots were at first allowed to own and buy property in the city, but were banished from the walled city in 1573-74 and had to settle outside in the area that later developed into Varosha. Turkish families from Anatolia were resettled in the walled city but could not fill the buildings that previously hosted a population of 10,000. This caused a drastic decrease in the population of Famagusta. Merchants from Famagusta, who mostly consisted of Latins that had been expelled, resettled in Larnaca and as Larnaca flourished, Famagusta lost its importance as a trade centre. Over time, Varosha developed into a prosperous agricultural town thanks to its location away from the marshes, whilst the walled city remained dilapidated. In the walled city, some buildings were repurposed to serve the interests of the Muslim population: the Cathedral of St. Nicholas was converted to a mosque (now known as Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque), a bazaar was developed, public baths, fountains and a theological school were built to accommodate the inhabitants' needs. Dead end streets, an Ottoman urban characteristic, was imported to the city and a communal spirit developed in which a small number of two-storey houses inhabited by the small upper class co-existed with the widespread one-storey houses. British rule Harbor of the city of Famagusta, 1905 Cinema Hadjichambi where Nea Salamis Famagusta was established in 1948. With the British takeover, Famagusta regained its significance as a port and an economic centre and its development was specifically targeted in British plans. As soon as the British took over the island, a Famagusta Development Act was passed that aimed at the reconstruction and redevelopment of the city's streets and dilapidated buildings as well as better hygiene. The port was developed and expanded between 1903 and 1906 and Cyprus Government Railway, with its terminus in Famagusta, started construction in 1904. Whilst Larnaca continued to be used as the main port of the island for some time, after Famagusta's use as a military base in World War I trade significantly shifted to Famagusta. The city outside the walls grew at an accelerated rate, with development being centred around Varosha. Varosha became the administrative centre as the British moved their headquarters and residences there and tourism grew significantly in the last years of the British rule. Pottery and production of citrus and potatoes also significantly grew in the city outside the walls, whilst agriculture within the walled city declined to non-existence. New residential areas were built to accommodate the increasing population towards the end of the British rule, and by 1960, Famagusta was a modern port city extending far beyond Varosha and the walled city. The British period also saw a significant demographic shift in the city. In 1881, Christians constituted 60% of the city's population whilst Muslims were at 40%. By 1960, Turkish Cypriot population had dropped to 17.5% of the overall population, whilst the Greek Cypriot population had risen to 70%. The city was also the site for one of the British internment camps for nearly 50,000 Jewish survivors of the Holocaust trying to emigrate to Palestine. From independence to Turkish Cypriot rule Famagusta's old Cathedral (Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque) in the 1970s From independence in 1960 to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus of 1974, Famagusta developed toward the south west of Varosha as a tourist centre. In the late 1960s Famagusta became a well-known entertainment and tourist centre. The contribution of Famagusta to the country's economic activity by 1974 far exceeded its proportional dimensions within the country. Whilst its population was only about 7% of the total of the country, Famagusta by 1974 accounted for over 10% of the total industrial employment and production of Cyprus, concentrating mainly on light industry compatible with its activity as a tourist resort and turning out high-quality products ranging from food, beverages and tobacco to clothing, footwear, plastics, light machinery and transport equipment. It contributed 19.3% of the business units and employed 21.3% of the total number of persons engaged in commerce on the island. It acted as the main tourist destination of Cyprus, hosting 31.5% of the hotels and 45% of Cyprus' total bed capacity. Varosha acted as the main touristic and business quarters. In this period, the urbanisation of Famagusta slowed down and the development of the rural areas accelerated. Therefore, economic growth was shared between the city of Famagusta and the district, which had a balanced agricultural economy, with citrus, potatoes, tobacco and wheat as main products. Famagusta maintained good communications with this hinterland. The city's port remained the island's main seaport and in 1961, it was expanded to double its capacity in order to accommodate the growing volume of exports and imports. The port handled 42.7% of Cypriot exports, 48.6% of imports and 49% of passenger traffic. There has not been an official census since 1960 but the population of the town in 1974 was estimated to be around 39,000 not counting about 12,000–15,000 persons commuting daily from the surrounding villages and suburbs to work in Famagusta. The number of people staying in the city would swell to about 90,000–100,000 during the peak summer tourist period, with the influx of tourists from numerous European countries, mainly Britain, France, Germany and the Scandinavian countries. The majority of the city population were Greek Cypriots (26,500), with 8,500 Turkish Cypriots and 4,000 people from other ethnic groups. Turkish Occupation The Victory Monument (Zafer Anıtı) in Polatpaşa Boulevard, Famagusta During the second phase of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 14 August 1974 the Mesaoria plain was overrun by Turkish tanks and Famagusta was bombed by Turkish aircraft. It took two days for the Turkish Army to occupy the city, prior to which Famagusta's entire Greek Cypriot population had fled into surrounding fields. Most of these Greek Cypriots believed that once the initial violence calmed down they would be allowed to return. As a result of the Turkish airstrikes dozens of civilians died, including tourists. Unlike other parts of the Turkish-controlled areas of Cyprus, the Varosha suburb of Famagusta was fenced off by the Turkish Army immediately after being captured and remains fenced off today. The Greek Cypriots who had fled from Varosha were not allowed to return, and journalists are banned. Cityscape A roundabout in Famagusta Famagusta's historic city centre is surrounded by the fortifications of Famagusta, which have a roughly rectangular shape, built mainly by the Venetians in the 15th and 16th centuries, though some sections of the walls have been dated earlier times, as far as 1211. Some important landmarks and visitor attractions in the old city are: The Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque The Othello Castle Palazzo del Provveditore - the Venetian palace of the governor, built on the site of the former Lusignan royal palace St. Francis' Church Sinan Pasha Mosque Church of St. George of the Greeks Church of St. George of the Latins Twin Churches Nestorian Church (of St George the Exiler) Namık Kemal Dungeon Agios Ioannis Church Venetian House Akkule Masjid Mustafa Pasha Mosque Ganchvor monastery In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund listed Famagusta, a "maritime ancient city of crusader kings", among the 12 sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and destruction, citing insufficient management and development pressures. Economy See also: Port of Famagusta The port of Famagusta Famagusta is an important commercial hub of Northern Cyprus. The main economic activities in the city are tourism, education, construction and industrial production. It has a 115-acre free port, which is the most important seaport of Northern Cyprus for travel and commerce. The port is an important source of income and employment for the city, though its volume of trade is restricted by the embargo against Northern Cyprus. Its historical sites, including the walled city, Salamis, the Othello Castle and the St Barnabas Church, as well as the sandy beaches surrounding it make it a tourist attraction; efforts are also underway to make the city more attractive for international congresses. The Eastern Mediterranean University is also an important employer and supplies significant income and activity, as well as opportunities for the construction sector. The university also raises a qualified workforce that stimulates the city's industry and makes communications industry viable. The city has two industrial zones: the Large Industrial Zone and the Little Industrial Zone. The city is also home to a fishing port, but inadequate infrastructure of the port restricts the growth of this sector. The industry in the city has traditionally been concentrated on processing agricultural products. Historically, the port was the primary source of income and employment for the city, especially right after 1974. However, it gradually lost some of its importance to the economy as the share of its employees in the population of Famagusta diminished due to various reasons. However, it still is the primary port for commerce in Northern Cyprus, with more than half of ships that came to Northern Cyprus in 2013 coming to Famagusta. It is the second most popular seaport for passengers, after Kyrenia, with around 20,000 passengers using the port in 2013. Politics Seal of the municipality of Gazimagusa The mayor-in-exile of Famagusta is Simos Ioannou. İsmail Arter heads the Turkish Cypriot municipal administration of Famagusta, which remains legal as a communal-based body under the constitutional system of the Republic of Cyprus. Since 1974, Greek Cypriots submitted a number of proposals within the context of bicommunal discussions for the return of Varosha to UN administration, allowing the return of its previous inhabitants, requesting also the opening of Famagusta harbour for use by both communities. Varosha would have been returned under Greek Cypriot control as part of the 2004 Annan Plan if the plan had been accepted by the Greek Cypriot voters. Culture A street in the walled city of Famagusta The walled city of Famagusta contains many unique buildings. Famagusta has a walled city popular with tourists. Every year, the International Famagusta Art and Culture Festival is organized in Famagusta. Concerts, dance shows and theater plays take place during the festival. A growth in tourism and the city's university have fueled the development of Famagusta's vibrant nightlife. Nightlife in the city is especially active on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday nights and in the hotter months of the year, starting from April. Larger hotels in the city have casinos that cater to their customers. Salamis Road is an area of Famagusta where bars frequented by students and locals are concentrated and is very vibrant, especially in the summer. Famagusta's Othello Castle is the setting for William Shakespeare's play Othello. The city is also the setting for Victoria Hislop's 2015 novel The Sunrise, and Michael Paraskos's 2016 novel In Search of Sixpence. The city is the birthplace of the eponymous hero of the Renaissance proto-novel Fortunatus. United Nation's Council and Recent Times UN Security Council resolution 550 (1984) considers any attempts to settle any part of Famagusta by people other than its inhabitants as inadmissible and calls for the transfer of this area to the administration of the UN. UN Security Council resolution 789 (1992) also urges that with a view to the implementation of resolution 550 (1984), the area at present under the control of the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus be extended to include Varosha. The leader of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)(which is only recognised by Turkey) urged Greek Cypriots who own real estate in the abandoned town of Famagusta to apply for their property. Sports Canbulat stadium Famagusta was home to many Greek Cypriot sport teams that left the city because of the Turkish invasion and still bear their original names. Most notable football clubs originally from the city are Anorthosis Famagusta FC and Nea Salamis Famagusta FC, both of the Cypriot First Division, which are now based in Larnaca. Famagusta is represented by Mağusa Türk Gücü in the Turkish Cypriot First Division. Dr. Fazıl Küçük Stadium is the largest football stadium in Famagusta. Many Turkish Cypriot sport teams that left Southern Cyprus because of the Cypriot intercommunal violence are based in Famagusta. Famagusta is represented by DAÜ Sports Club and Magem Sports Club in North Cyprus First Volleyball Division. Gazimağusa Türk Maarif Koleji represents Famagusta in the North Cyprus High School Volleyball League. Famagusta has a modern volleyball stadium called the Mağusa Arena. Education Library of the Eastern Mediterranean University in Famagusta, 2007. The Eastern Mediterranean University was founded in the city in 1979. The Istanbul Technical University founded a campus in the city in 2010. The Cyprus College of Art was founded in Famagusta by the Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos in 1969, before moving to Paphos in 1972 after protests from local hoteliers that the presence of art students in the city was putting off holidaymakers. Healthcare Famagusta has three general hospitals. Gazimağusa Devlet Hastahanesi, a state hospital, is the biggest hospital in city. Gazimağusa Tıp Merkezi and Gazimağusa Yaşam Hastahanesi are private hospitals. Personalities Chris Achilleos, illustrator of the book versions on the BBC children's series Doctor Who Saint Barnabas, born and died in Salamis, Famagusta Costas Montis was an influential and prolific Greek Cypriot poet, novelist, and playwright born in Famagusta. Beran Bertuğ, Governor of Famagusta, first Cypriot woman to hold this position Dr. Derviş Eroğlu, former President of Northern Cyprus Alexis Galanos, 7th President of the House of Representatives and Cypriot Famagusta Mayor (2006-2019) (Republic of Cyprus) Xanthos Hadjisoteriou, Cypriot painter Oktay Kayalp, current Turkish Cypriot Famagusta mayor (Northern Cyprus) Dimitris Papadakis a Greek Cypriot politician, who served as a Member of the European Parliament. Hal Ozsan, actor (Dawson's Creek, Kyle XY) Oz Karahan, political activist, President of the Union of Cypriots Vamik Volkan, Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry Marios Constantinou former international Cypriot football midfielder and current manager. Ṣubḥ-i-Azal, Persian religious leader, lived and died in exile in Famagusta George Vasiliou, former President of Cyprus Derviş Zaim, film director Touker Suleyman (born Türker Süleyman) British Turkish Cypriot fashion retail entrepreneur, investor and reality television personality. International relations See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Northern Cyprus Twin towns – sister cities Famagusta is twinned with: İzmir, Turkey (since 1974) Corfu, Greece (since 1994) Patras, Greece (since 1994) Antalya, Turkey (since 1997) Salamina (city), Greece (since 1998) Struga, North Macedonia Athens, Greece (since 2005) Northern Cyprus (Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, KKTC), is a de facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the northeast to Morphou Bay, Cape Kormakitis and its westernmost point, the Kokkina exclave in the west. Its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both sides. A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the north in 1983. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic, political and military support. Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful. The Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported and approved by the TRNC government, the Republic of Cyprus, the European Union as a whole, and the international community regard it as an occupation force, and its presence has been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Northern Cyprus is a semi-presidential, democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various influences and an economy that is dominated by the services sector. The economy has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP per capita more than tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo due to the official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus by the Republic of Cyprus. The official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken. The vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are mostly moderate and secular. Northern Cyprus is an observer state of ECO and OIC under the title "Turkish Cypriot State", and of PACE under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community". 1960–1974 See also: Cypriot intercommunal violence Fazıl Küçük, former Turkish Cypriot leader and former Vice-President of Cyprus Sarayönü Square of North Nicosia in 1969, after the division of the city A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed to abandon their respective plans for enosis (union with Greece) and taksim (Turkish for "partition"). The agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots and to demote Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process. Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus (SCCC). Makarios announced that he would not comply with the decision of the SCCC, whatever it was, and defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC. On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided that Makarios's 13 amendments were illegal. The Cyprus Supreme Court's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to fully implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments. On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios's stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC. After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist. The Supreme Court of Cyprus (SCC) was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, and undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC. On 30 November, Makarios legalised the 13 proposals. In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government and ultimately lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected then they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene". On 21 December 1963, shots were fired at a Turkish Cypriot crowd that had gathered as a Greek police patrol stopped two Turkish Cypriots, claiming to ask for identification; two Turkish Cypriots were killed. Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia and Larnaca. Though the TMT—a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim (division or partition of Cyprus), in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece)—committed a number of acts of retaliation; historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks". Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population. By the end of 1964, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots had been killed. Turkish Cypriot members of the government had by now withdrawn, creating an essentially Greek Cypriot administration in control of all institutions of the state. After the partnership government collapsed, the Greek Cypriot led administration was recognised as the legitimate government of the Republic of Cyprus at the stage of the debates in New York in February 1964. In September 1964, the then United Nations Secretary General, U Thant reported that "UNFICYP carried out a detailed survey of all damage to properties throughout the island during the disturbances; it shows that in 109 villages, most of them Turkish-Cypriot or mixed villages, 527 houses have been destroyed while 2,000 others have suffered damage from looting". Widespread looting of Turkish Cypriot villages prompted 20,000 refugees to retreat into armed enclaves, where they remained for the next 11 years, relying on food and medical supplies from Turkey to survive. Turkish Cypriots formed paramilitary groups to defend the enclaves, leading to a gradual division of the island's communities into two hostile camps. The violence had also seen thousands of Turkish Cypriots attempt to escape the violence by emigrating to Britain, Australia and Turkey. On 28 December 1967, the Turkish Cypriot Provisional Administration was founded. 1974–1983 Main articles: 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and Turkish Federated State of Cyprus Rauf Denktaş, founder and former President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus On 6 July 1974, Makarios accused the Greek government of turning the Cypriot National Guard into an army of occupation. On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta and the Cypriot National Guard backed a Greek Cypriot military coup d'état in Cyprus. Pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson replaced President Makarios as the new president. The Greek Cypriot coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic of Cyprus". Turkey claimed that under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, the coup was sufficient reason for military action to protect the Turkish Cypriot populace, and thus Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July. Turkish forces proceeded to take over the northern four-elevenths of the island (about 36% of Cyprus's total area). The coup caused a civil war filled with ethnic violence, after which it collapsed and Makarios returned to power. On 2 August 1975, in the negotiations in Vienna, a population exchange agreement was signed between community leaders Rauf Denktaş and Glafcos Clerides under the auspices of United Nations. On the basis of the Agreement, 196,000 Greek Cypriots living in the north were exchanged for 42,000 Turkish Cypriots living in the south (the number of settlers was disputed). The Orthodox Greek Cypriots in Rizokarpaso, Agios Andronikos and Agia Triada chose to stay in their villages, as did also Catholic Maronites in Asomatos, Karpasia and Kormakitis. Approximately 1,500 Greek Cypriots and 500 Turkish Cypriots remain missing. The invasion led to the formation of the first sovereign administrative body of Northern Cyprus in August 1974, the Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration. In 1975, the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti) was declared as a first step towards a future federated Cypriot state, but was rejected by the Republic of Cyprus and the United Nations. The north unilaterally declared its independence on 15 November 1983 under the name of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. This was rejected by the UN via Security Council Resolution 541. 1983–present Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus and Turkish flags. In recent years, the politics of reunification has dominated the island's affairs. The European Union decided in 2000 to accept Cyprus as a member, even if it was divided. This was due to their view of Rauf Denktaş, the pro-independence Turkish Cypriot President, as the main stumbling block, but also due to Greece threatening to block eastern EU expansion. It was hoped that Cyprus's planned accession into the European Union would act as a catalyst towards a settlement. In the time leading up to Cyprus becoming a member, a new government was elected in Turkey and Rauf Denktaş lost political power in Cyprus. In 2004, a United Nations–brokered peace settlement was presented in a referendum to both sides. The proposed settlement was opposed by both the president of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos, and Turkish Cypriot president Rauf Denktaş; in the referendum, while 65% of Turkish Cypriots accepted the proposal, 76% of Greek Cypriots rejected it. As a result, Cyprus entered the European Union divided, with the effects of membership suspended for Northern Cyprus. Denktaş resigned in the wake of the vote, ushering in the pro-settlement Mehmet Ali Talat as his successor. However, the pro-settlement side and Mehmet Ali Talat lost momentum due to the ongoing embargo and isolation, despite promises from the European Union that these would be eased. As a result, the Turkish Cypriot electorate became frustrated. This led ultimately to the pro-independence side winning the general elections in 2009 and its candidate, former Prime Minister Derviş Eroğlu, winning the presidential elections in 2010. Although Eroğlu and his National Unity Party favours the independence of Northern Cyprus rather than reunification with the Republic of Cyprus, he is negotiating with the Greek Cypriot side towards a settlement for reunification. In 2011, Turkish Cypriots protested against economic reforms made by the Northern Cyprus and Turkish governments; see 2011 Turkish Cypriot demonstrations. Administrative divisions Main article: Districts of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus is divided into six districts: Lefkoşa, Gazimağusa, Girne, Güzelyurt, İskele and Lefke. Lefke District was established by separation from the Güzelyurt District in 2016. In addition there are further twelve sub-districts divided between the five larger districts and twenty-eight municipalities. Blank district map of Northern CyprusLefkoşaGirneİskeleGüzelyurtGazimağusa Politics Main article: Politics of Northern Cyprus Ersin Tatar, the President of Northern Cyprus The politics of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term and is currently Ersin Tatar. The current Prime Minister is Ersan Saner. The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation from six electoral districts. In the elections of January 2018, the right-wing National Unity Party won the most seats in the Assembly, and the current government is a coalition of the National Unity Party and the centrist People's Party. Due to Northern Cyprus's isolation and heavy reliance on Turkish support, Turkey has a high level of influence over the country's politics. This has led to some experts characterising it as an effective puppet state of Turkey. Other experts, however, have pointed out to the independent nature of elections and appointments in Northern Cyprus and disputes between the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish governments, concluding that "puppet state" is not an accurate description for Northern Cyprus. International status and foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus London office of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Bedford Square. Mustafa Akıncı with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2 October 2015 No nation other than Turkey has officially recognised Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. The United Nations recognises it as territory of the Republic of Cyprus under Turkish occupation. Pakistan and Bangladesh had initially declared their recognition of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state shortly after its declaration of independence, but they withdrew their recognition as a result of US pressure after the UN deemed the declaration illegal. The United Nations considers the declaration of independence by Northern Cyprus as legally invalid, as enunciated in several of its resolutions. In the wake of the April 2004 referendum on the United Nations Annan Plan, and in view of the support of the Turkish Cypriot community for the plan, the European Union made pledges towards ending the isolation of Northern Cyprus. These included measures for trade and €259 million in aid. A pledge by the EU to lift the embargo on Northern Cyprus in the wake of the Annan Plan referendums has been blocked by the Greek Cypriot government. In 2004, the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation upgraded the delegation of the Turkish Cypriot Muslim community from "observer community" (1979) to that of a constituent state with the designation "Turkish Cypriot State", making Northern Cyprus an observer member of the organisation. A number of high-profile formal meetings have also taken place between Turkish Cypriot presidents and various foreign leaders and politicians. In 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe gave observer status to the representatives of Turkish Cypriot community. Since then, Northern Cyprus's representatives have actively participated in all PACE activities without voting rights. The European Union considers the area not under effective control of the Republic of Cyprus as EU territory under Turkish military occupation and thus indefinitely exempt from EU legislation until a settlement has been found. The status of Northern Cyprus has become a recurrent issue especially during the recent talks for Turkey's membership of the EU where the division of the island is seen as a major stumbling block in Turkey's road to membership. The Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan has issued a resolution recognising the independence of Northern Cyprus. As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh issue, however, Azerbaijan itself has not recognised North Cyprus. Turkish Cypriots have been applying for decades for passports issued by Cyprus. When the entry points with the Republic of Cyprus were closed, the applications were made either through middlemen or through consulates and embassies of Cyprus in other countries. A yearly increase in the number of applications for such passports of 10–15% was observed in years prior to 2001, when the rate greatly increased and 817 were issued in the first eight months of 2001 as compared to 448 for the whole of 2000. After the opening of the borders with the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots started line-ups applying for Cypriot passports by visiting the Republic of Cyprus and showing proof of their Cypriot ancestry. There are seven border crossings between Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. Since May 2004 some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic of Cyprus directly then crossing the green line to holiday in Northern Cyprus.[needs update] On 21 September 2011, Turkey and Northern Cyprus signed an EEZ border agreement in New York. In October 2012, Northern Cyprus became an observer member of the Economic Cooperation Organization under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". Military Main article: Security Forces Command Turkish Cypriot soldiers of the Security Forces Command perform during a Republic Day parade. The Security Forces Command consists of an 8,000 strong force primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot males between the ages of 18 and 40. There is also an additional reserve force which consists of about 10,000 first-line and 16,000 second-line troops conscripted up to the age of 50. The Security Forces Command is lightly armed and heavily dependent on its mainland Turkish allies, from which it draws much of its officer corps. It is led by a Brigadier General drawn from the Turkish Army. It acts essentially as a gendarmerie charged with protection of the border of Northern Cyprus from Greek Cypriot incursions and maintaining internal security within Northern Cyprus. In addition, the mainland Turkish Armed Forces maintains the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force which consists of around 30,000–40,000 troops drawn from the 9th Turkish Army Corps and comprising two divisions, the 28th and 39th. It is equipped with a substantial number of US-made M48 Patton main battle tanks and artillery weapons. The Turkish Air Force, Turkish Navy and Turkish Coast Guard also have a presence in Northern Cyprus. Although formally part of Turkish 4th Army, headquartered in İzmir, the sensitivities of the Cyprus situation means that the commander of the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force also reports directly to the Turkish General Staff in Ankara. The Cyprus Turkish Peace Force is deployed principally along the Green Line and in locations where hostile amphibious landings might take place. The presence of the mainland Turkish military in Cyprus is highly controversial, having been denounced as an occupation force by the Republic of Cyprus and the international community. Several United Nations Security Council resolutions have called on the Turkish forces to withdraw. Human rights Main article: Human rights in Northern Cyprus The law courts building in North Nicosia In January 2011, The Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights." Freedom House has classified the perceived level of democratic and political freedom in Northern Cyprus as "free" since 2000 in its Freedom in the World report. The 2016 ranking was "free" with the scores (1: most free, 7: least free) political rights: 2/7, civil liberties: 2/7 and aggregate score: 79/100. Reporters Without Borders' World Press Freedom Index ranked Northern Cyprus 76th among 180 countries in 2015. The Greek Cypriot and Maronite communities, numbering 343 and 118 respectively as of 2014, are denied the right to vote in presidential, parliamentary and municipal elections or run for office. Maronites do elect the leader of their village, whilst Greek Cypriots have two appointed leaders, one by the Turkish Cypriot government and the other by the Republic of Cyprus. World Happiness Report 2016 of United Nations' Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) ranked Northern Cyprus 62nd among 157 countries. Gallup Healthways Well-Being Index of 2014 ranked Northern Cyprus 49th among 145 countries. Northern Cyprus received 153 asylum applications during 2011–14 according to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Geography Main articles: Geography of Cyprus and Climate of Cyprus Panoramic view of the Güzelyurt District, and Morphou Bay as seen from the Troodos mountains. Northern Cyprus has an area of 3,355 square kilometres (1,295 sq mi), which amounts to around a third of the island. 75 kilometres (47 mi) to the north of Northern Cyprus lies Turkey with Syria lying 97 kilometres (60.3 mi) to the east. It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E. The coastline of Northern Cyprus features two bays: the Morphou Bay and the Famagusta Bay, and there are four capes: Cape Apostolos Andreas, Cape Kormakitis, Cape Zeytin and Cape Kasa, with Cape Apostolos Andreas being the endpoint of the Karpaz Peninsula. The narrow Kyrenia mountain range lies along the northern coastline, and the highest point in Northern Cyprus, Mount Selvili, lies in this mountain range with an altitude of 1,024 metres (3,360 ft). The Mesaoria plain, extending from the Güzelyurt district to the eastern coastline is another defining landscape. The Mesaoria plains consist of plain fields and small hills, and is crossed by several seasonal streams. The eastern part of the plain is used for dry agriculture, such as the cultivation of wheat and barley, and are therefore predominantly green in the winter and spring, while it turns yellow and brown in the summer. 56.7% of the land in Northern Cyprus is agriculturally viable. Biodiversity Wild Cyprus donkeys inhabit the mainly remote northern region of the İskele District. A relatively unspoiled part of the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, Northern Cyprus has considerable ecological diversity, containing a variety of terrestrial habitats. Its flora includes around 1900 plant species, of which 19 are endemic to Northern Cyprus. Even in the urban areas, there is a lot of diversity: a study conducted on the banks of the Pedieos river around Nicosia found more than 750 different plant species. Among these species are 30 of the orchid species that are endemic to Cyprus. An endangered species that is the subject of folk tales and myths is the sea daffodil, found on the sandy beaches and endangered due to the disruption of their habitats. The medoş tulip (Tulipa cypria) is a notable species that is endemic to Northern Cyprus; it is only found in the villages of Tepebaşı/Diorios and Avtepe/Ayios Simeon, and is celebrated with an annual festival. In the national park in the Karpaz Peninsula around Cape Apostolos Andreas, there is a population of around 1,000 wild Cyprus donkeys. These donkeys, under the protection of the Turkish Cypriot government, are free to wander in herds over an area of 300 square kilometres (120 square miles) The donkeys have earned a strong image for the peninsula, which is also home to a rich fauna and relatively big forests. The beaches of Northern Cyprus also include sites where hundreds of loggerhead turtles and green turtles lay eggs, which hatch at the end of the summer, followed by observers. Climate Beach near Mehmetcik, İskele District The winter in Northern Cyprus is cool and rainy, particularly between December and February, with 60% of annual rainfall. These rains produce winter torrents that fill most of the rivers, which typically dry up as the year progresses. Snow has been known to fall on the Kyrenia Range, but seldom elsewhere in spite of low night temperatures. The short spring is characterised by unstable weather, occasional heavy storms and the "meltem", or westerly wind. Summer is hot and dry enough to turn low-lying lands on the island brown. Parts of the island experience the "Poyraz", a north-westerly wind, or the sirocco, a wind from Africa, which is dry and dusty. Summer is followed by a short, turbulent autumn. Climate conditions on the island vary by geographical factors. The Mesaoria Plain, cut off from the summer breezes and from much of the humidity of the sea, may reach temperature peaks of 40 to 45 °C (104 to 113 °F). Humidity rises at the Karpaz Peninsula. Humidity and water temperature, 16 to 28 °C (61 to 82 °F), combine to stabilise coastal weather, which does not experience inland extremes. The Southern Range blocks air currents that bring rain and atmospheric humidity from the south-west, diminishing both on its eastern side. Economy Main article: Economy of Northern Cyprus Kyrenia (Girne) is one of the main tourist resorts in Northern Cyprus. Tourism is one of the dominant sectors of the Northern Cyprus' economy. The economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007) which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. The revenues gained by the education sector in 2011 was $400 million. Industry (light manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9%. The economy of Northern Cyprus is based on a free market approach and it became the top country in Europe in entrepreneurial intent to start a new business in 2014. Economic development is adversely affected by the continuing Cyprus problem. Northern Cyprus is under an international embargo as the Republic of Cyprus, as the internationally recognised authority, has declared airports and ports in the area not under its effective control closed. All UN member states other than Turkey respect the closure of those ports and airports. As a result, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkish economic support, and is still dependent on monetary transfers from the Turkish government. Northern Cyprus uses the Turkish lira as legal tender rather than the euro which links its economy to that of Turkey's. Since the Republic of Cyprus joined the Eurozone and the movement of peoples between the north and south has become more free, the Euro is also in wide circulation. Exports and imports have to go via Turkey; while European Union promised an opening up of the ports after the Annan plan, this was blocked by the Republic of Cyprus and exporting through the south, while technically possible, remains impractical. Despite the constraints imposed by the lack of international recognition, the nominal GDP growth rates of the economy in 2001–2005 were 5.4%, 6.9%, 11.4%, 15.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The real GDP growth rate in 2007 was estimated at 2%. This growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira and a boom in the education and construction sectors. Between 2002 and 2007, Gross National Product per capita more than tripled, from US$4,409 in 2002 to US$16,158 (in current U.S. dollars). The growth continued through the 2010s, with real growth rates of 3.7%, 3.9%, 1.8% and 1.1% respectively in 2010–2013. The unemployment rate declined through the 2010s and was at 8.3% in 2014. In 2011, North Cyprus sold electricity to the Republic of Cyprus following an explosion in the southern part of the island which affected a large power station. The Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project, completed in 2015, is aimed at delivering water for drinking and irrigation from southern Turkey via a pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea. International telephone calls are routed via a Turkish dialling code (+90 392) as Northern Cyprus has neither its own country code nor official ITU prefix. Similarly with the internet Northern Cyprus has no top level domain of its own and is under the Turkish second-level domain .nc.tr. Items of mail must be addressed 'via Mersin 10, TURKEY' as the Universal Postal Union does not recognise Northern Cyprus as a separate entity. Amateur radio operators sometimes use callsigns beginning with "1B", but these have no standing for awards or other operating credit. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Northern Cyprus Panoramic view of the Kyrenia Harbour, with the Venetian-era Kyrenia Castle on the far left, and the Kyrenia Mountains in the background Tourism is considered as one of the driving sectors of the Turkish Cypriot economy. The country received over 1.1 million tourists in 2012, when hotels and restaurants generated an income of $328 million and constituted 8.5% of the GDP. Accommodation and catering created more than 10,000 jobs in the same year. The tourism sector has seen great development in the 2000s and 2010s, with the number of tourists more than doubling, increased investment and hotel construction; official estimates of income derived from tourism were around 700 million US dollars in 2013 and the total bed capacity was estimated to be around 20,000. Casino tourism is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy. Kyrenia is considered the capital of tourism in Northern Cyprus, with its numerous hotels, entertainment facilities, vibrant nightlife and shopping areas. In 2012, 62.7% of the visitors in Northern Cyprus stayed in the Girne District during their visit. Out of the 145 hotels in Northern Cyprus, 99 were in the Girne District in 2013. Northern Cyprus has traditionally been an attraction for beach holidays, partly thanks to its reputation as an unspoiled area. Its mild climate, rich history and nature are seen as sources of attraction. A significant sector of eco-tourism has been developed in Northern Cyprus, as tourists visit it for bird watching, cycling, walking and observing flowers in the wild. It is praised for its relative safety, and especially for the Karpass Peninsula, its well-preservation. The peninsula is home to several sorts of tourism: it hosts the Bafra Tourism Area as a center for beach-goers, where four luxurious and large hotels were built until 2014, several facilities and regular festivals that highlight its rural qualities and exhibit local traditions, a remote natural park, the Kantara Castle attracting sightseers, and a marina that was built to host international yachts and boats, along with large facilities. Casino tourism has also grown to become a significant contribution to the economy in Northern Cyprus. They were first opened in the 1990s, and have since become very popular with visitors from Turkey and the rest of the island, where casinos are banned. This has led to huge investments in the casino sector. However, the sector has been criticised due to claims of its lack of benefits for the small and middle-scale business and shop owners. The "nightclubs" that have been established for prostitution attract sex tourism to Northern Cyprus and the industry has been described as a "civilized one", despite the sex workers being described as "vulnerable to abuse". Infrastructure The Ercan International Airport serves as the main port of entry into Northern Cyprus. The share of the transport and communications industry in the GDP of Northern Cyprus is constantly varying; it decreased from 12.1% in 2008 to 8.5% in 2011, but rose again to 9.3% in 2012. Air transport is a major route of entry into Northern Cyprus. The country is home to two airports, the Ercan International Airport and the Geçitkale Airport, of which only Ercan is currently functioning. The Ercan airport saw an important renovation in the 2010s that greatly increased its passenger traffic, it was used by 1.76 million passengers in the first seven months of 2014 alone. Non-stop flights are only available from multiple points in Turkey through a number of Turkish carriers. Direct scheduled and charter flights take place from other countries, but with mandatory stopovers in Turkey. 600 charter flights were scheduled for 2013. Scheduled destinations include cities such as London and Manchester, while charter flight destinations include cities such as Berlin and Ljubljana. Direct flights to Northern Cyprus and the trade traffic through the Northern Cypriot ports are restricted as part of the embargo on Northern Cypriot ports. The airports of Geçitkale and Ercan are only recognised as legal ports of entry by Turkey and Azerbaijan. Direct charter flights between Poland and North Cyprus started on 20 June 2011. The seaports in Famagusta and Kyrenia have been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic of Cyprus since 1974. By agreement between Northern Cyprus and Syria, there was a ship tour between Famagusta and Latakia, Syria before the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War. Since the opening of the Green Line Turkish Cypriot residents are allowed to trade through ports recognized by the Republic of Cyprus. With the lack of a railway system, the country's highways are used for transport between major cities. In the 21st century, these highways were upgraded into dual carriageways, with some roads in the Karpass area still being upgraded as of 2015. Northern Cyprus has around 7,000 kilometres (4,300 miles) of roads, with two thirds of these roads paved. Recent constructions included the construction of a Northern Coast Highway, which was hailed as a major incentive for economic development. Demographics Ethnic groups of Northern Cyprus (2006 census) Turks (99.2%) Greeks (0.2%) English (0.2%) Maronites (0.1%) Other (0.3%) See also: Demographics of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots, and Mainland Turks in Northern Cyprus Turkish Cypriot children in the walled part of North Nicosia Northern Cyprus's first official census was performed in 1996. The population recorded was 200,587. The second census, carried out in 2006, revealed the population of Northern Cyprus to be 265,100, of which majority is composed of indigenous Turkish Cypriots (including refugees from Southern Cyprus) and settlers from Turkey. Of the 178,000 Turkish Cypriot citizens, 82% are native Cypriots (145,000). Of the 45,000 people born to non-Cypriot parentage, nearly 40% (17,000) were born in Cyprus. The figure for non-citizens, including students, guest workers and temporary residents stood at 78,000 people. The third official census of Northern Cyprus was carried out in 2011, made under the auspices of UN observers. It returned a total population of 294,906. These results were disputed by some political parties, labour unions and local newspapers. The government was accused of deliberately under-counting the population, after apparently giving an estimate of 700,000 before the census, in order to demand financial help from Turkey. One source claims that the population in the north has reached 500,000, split between 50% Turkish Cypriots and 50% Turkish settlers or Cypriot-born children of such settlers. Researcher Mete Hatay has written that such reports are "wildly speculative" and are picked up by opposition parties for political benefit, which resulted in reports in the south. Such reports have never been scientifically or statistically scrutinised, despite opportunities of opposition parties to do so using the electoral rolls in their possession, thereby continuing a "war of numbers". The Government of Northern Cyprus estimates that the 1983 population of Northern Cyprus was 155,521. Estimates by the government of the Republic of Cyprus from 2001 place the population at 200,000, of which 80–89,000 are Turkish Cypriots and 109,000–117,000 are designated as Turkish settlers by the Republic of Cyprus. An island-wide census in 1960 indicated the number of Turkish Cypriots as 102,000 and Greek Cypriots as 450,000. As of 2005, the settlers constituted no more than 25% of the electorate in Northern Cyprus. The degree of the integration of mainland Turks to the Turkish Cypriot community varies; some identify as Turkish Cypriots and have culturally integrated, while some embrace a Turkish identity. Northern Cyprus is almost entirely Turkish-speaking. English, however, is widely spoken as a second language. There are 644 Greek Cypriots living in Rizokarpaso (Dipkarpaz) and 364 Maronites in Kormakitis. 162,000 Greek Cypriots were forcibly evicted from their homes in the North by the invading force of the Turkish army. Rizokarpaso is the home of the biggest Greek-speaking population in the north. The Greek-Cypriot inhabitants are still supplied by the UN, and Greek-Cypriot products are consequently available in some shops.[cita
License and Use
This Woman In The Window Book Club Questions - outdoor-steps-lala-mustafa-pasha-mosque-former-latin-cathedral-of-saint-nicholas-walled-city-famagusta-turkish-republic-of-north-cyprus- on net.photos image has 683x1024 pixels (original) and is uploaded to . The image size is 258516 byte. If you have a problem about intellectual property, child pornography or immature images with any of these pictures, please send report email to a webmaster at , to remove it from web.
Any questions about us or this searchengine simply use our contact form
- Published 11.27.21
- Resolution 683x1024
- Image type jpg
- File Size 258516 byte.