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National Trust, Room Interior, Cragside House And Gardens, Northumberland, England.

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posted by DM PHOTOGRAPHY alias [email protected] on Saturday 12th of December 2015 08:38:18 PM

Cragside is a Victorian country house near the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. It was the home of William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, founder of the Armstrong Whitworth armaments firm. An industrial magnate, scientist, philanthropist and inventor of the hydraulic crane and the Armstrong gun, Armstrong also displayed his inventiveness in the domestic sphere, making Cragside the first house in the world to be lit using hydroelectric power. The estate was technologically advanced; the architect of the house, Richard Norman Shaw, wrote that it was equipped with "wonderful hydraulic machines that do all sorts of things".[2] In the grounds, Armstrong built dams and lakes to power a sawmill, a water-powered laundry, early versions of a dishwasher and a dumb waiter, a hydraulic lift and a hydroelectric rotisserie. In 1887, Armstrong was raised to the peerage, the first engineer or scientist to be ennobled, and became Baron Armstrong of Cragside. The original building consisted of a small shooting lodge which Armstrong built between 1862 and 1864. In 1869, he employed the architect Richard Norman Shaw to enlarge the site, and in two phases of work between 1869 and 1882, they transformed the house into a northern Neuschwanstein. The result was described by the architect and writer Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel as "one of the most dramatic compositions in all architecture".[3] Armstrong filled the house with a significant art collection; he and his wife were patrons of many 19th-century British artists. Cragside became an integral part of Armstrong's commercial operations: honoured guests under Armstrong's roof, including the Shah of Persia, the King of Siam and two future Prime Ministers of Japan, were also customers for his commercial undertakings. Following Armstrong's death in 1900, his heirs struggled to maintain the house and estate. In 1910, the best of Armstrong's art collection was sold off, and by the 1970s, in an attempt to meet inheritance tax, plans were submitted for large-scale residential development of the estate. In 1971 the National Trust asked the architectural historian Mark Girouard to compile a gazetteer of the most important Victorian houses in Britain which the Trust should seek to save should they ever be sold. Girouard placed Cragside at the top of the list; in 1977, the house was acquired by the Trust with the aid of a grant from the National Land Fund. A Grade I listed building since 1953, Cragside has been open to the public since 1979. William Armstrong was born on 26 November 1810 in Newcastle upon Tyne, the son of a corn merchant.[4] Trained as a solicitor, he moved to London before he was twenty. Returning to Newcastle, in 1835 he met and married Margaret Ramshaw, the daughter of a builder.[5] A keen amateur scientist, Armstrong began to conduct experiments in both hydraulics and electricity. In 1847, he abandoned the law for manufacturing and established W. G. Armstrong and Company at a site at Elswick, outside Newcastle.[6] By the 1850s, with his design for the Armstrong Gun, Armstrong laid the foundations for an armaments firm that would, before the end of the century, see Krupp as its only world rival.[7][8] He established himself as a figure of national standing: his work supplying artillery to the British Army was seen as an important response to the failures of Britain's forces during the Crimean War.[8] In 1859, he was knighted and made Engineer of Rifled Ordnance, becoming the principal supplier of armaments to both the Army and the Navy. Armstrong had spent much of his childhood at Rothbury, escaping from industrial Newcastle for the benefit of his often poor health.[12] He returned to the area in 1862, not having taken a holiday for over fifteen years.[13] On a walk with friends, Armstrong was struck by the attractiveness of the site for a house. Returning to Newcastle, he bought a small parcel of land and decided to build a modest house on the side of a moorland crag. He intended a house of eight or ten rooms and a stable for a pair of horses.[13] The house was completed in the mid-1860s by an unknown architect:[14] a two-storey shooting box of little architectural distinction, it was nevertheless constructed and furnished to a high standard. Armstrong's architect for Cragside's expansion was the Scot R. Norman Shaw. Shaw had begun his career in the office of William Burn and had later studied under Anthony Salvin and George Edmund Street. Salvin had taught him the mastery of internal planning which was essential for the design of the large and highly variegated houses which the Victorian wealthy craved. Salvin and Street had taught him to understand the Gothic Revival.[16] At only 24, he won the RIBA Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship.[17] The connection between Armstrong and Shaw was made when Armstrong purchased a picture, Prince Hal taking the crown from his father's bedside by John Callcott Horsley, which proved too large to fit into his town house in Jesmond, Newcastle.[18] Horsley was a friend of both, and recommended that Shaw design an extension to the banqueting hall Armstrong had previously built in the grounds.[19] When this was completed in 1869, Shaw was asked for enlargements and improvements to the shooting lodge Armstrong had had built at Rothbury four years earlier. This was the genesis of the transformation of the house between 1869 and 1884.[20] Over the next thirty years, Cragside became the centre of Armstrong's world; reminiscing years later, in his old age, he remarked, "had there been no Cragside, I shouldn't be talking to you today – for it has been my very life".[21] The architectural historian Andrew Saint records that Shaw sketched out the whole design for the "future fairy palace" in a single afternoon, while Armstrong and his guests were out on a shooting party.[20] After this rapid initial design, Shaw worked on building the house for over 20 years. The long building period, and Armstrong's piecemeal, and changeable, approach to the development of the house, and his desire to retain the original shooting lodge at its core,[22] occasionally led to tensions between client and architect, and to a building that lacks an overall unity.[23] Armstrong changed the purpose of several rooms as his interests developed, and the German architectural historian Hermann Muthesius, writing just after Armstrong's death in 1900, noted that "the house did not find the unqualified favour with Shaw's followers that his previous works had done, nor did it entirely satisfy (Shaw)".[24] Nevertheless, Shaw's abilities, as an architect and as a manager of difficult clients, ensured that Cragside was composed "with memorable force". As well as being Armstrong's home, Cragside acted as an enormous display case for his ever-expanding art collection. The best of his pictures were hung in the drawing room, but Shaw also converted the museum into a top-lit picture gallery.[25] Pride of place was given to John Everett Millais's Chill October, bought by Armstrong at the Samuel Mendel sale at Christie's in 1875. Armstrong also bought Millais' Jephthah's Daughter at the Mendel sale. Both were sold in the 1910 sale; Chill October is now in the private collection of Andrew Lloyd Webber,[26] and Jephthah's Daughter is held by the National Museum Cardiff.[27][b] Cragside was an important setting for Armstrong's commercial activities. The architectural writer Simon Jenkins records: "Japanese, Persian, Siamese and German dignitaries paid court to the man who equipped their armies and built their navies".[30] In his 2005 book Landmarks of Britain Clive Aslet notes visits with the same purpose from the Crown Prince of Afghanistan and the Shah of Persia.[31] The Shah Naser al-Din visited in July 1889, and the Afghan prince Nasrullah Khan in June 1895. Armstrong's biographer Henrietta Heald mentions two future Prime Ministers of Japan, Katō Takaaki and Saitō Makoto, among a steady stream of Japanese industrialists, naval officers, politicians and royalty who inscribed their names in the Cragside visitors' book.[32] The Chinese diplomat Li Hung Chang visited in August 1896. King Chulalongkorn of Siam was staying in August 1897, when activity at the Elswick Works was disrupted by a bitter strike over pay and hours.[33] In August 1884 the Prince and Princess of Wales (the future Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) made a three-day visit to Cragside; it was the peak of Armstrong's social career. The royal arrival at the house was illuminated by ten thousand lamps and a vast array of Chinese lanterns hung in the trees on the estate; fireworks were launched from six balloons, and a great bonfire was lit on the Simonside Hills.[34] On the second day of their visit, the Prince and Princess travelled to Newcastle, to formally open the grounds of Armstrong's old house, Jesmond Dean, which he had by then donated to the city as a public park. It is still a public park today, a ravine known as Jesmond Dene.[35] Three years later, at the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, Armstrong was ennobled as Baron Armstrong of Cragside, and became the first engineer and the first scientist to be granted a peerage.[36][c] Among many other celebrations, he was awarded the freedom of the City of Newcastle. In his vote of thanks, the mayor noted that one in four of the entire population of the city was employed directly by Armstrong, or by companies over which he presided. Armstrong died at Cragside on 27 December 1900, aged 90, and was buried beside his wife in the churchyard at Rothbury.[40] His gravestone carries an epitaph: His scientific attainments gained him a world wide celebrity and his great philanthropy the gratitude of the poor.[41] Cragside, and Armstrong's fortune, were inherited by his great-nephew, William Watson-Armstrong.[42] Watson-Armstrong lacked Armstrong's commercial acumen and a series of poor financial investments led to the sale of much of the great art collection in 1910.[43] In 1972, the death of Watson-Armstrong's heir, William John Montagu Watson-Armstrong, saw the house and estate threatened by large-scale residential development, intended to raise the money to pay a large inheritance tax bill.[44] In 1971, when advising the National Trust on the most important Victorian houses to be preserved for the nation in the event of their sale, Mark Girouard had identified Cragside as the top priority.[45] A major campaign saw the house and grounds acquired by the Trust in 1977,[42] with the aid of a grant from the National Land Fund.[44] In 2007, Cragside reopened after undergoing an 18-month refurbishment programme[46] that included rewiring the whole house.[45] It has become one of the most-visited sites in North East England, with some 255,005 visitors in 2019.[47] The Trust continues restoration work, allowing more of the house to be displayed: Armstrong's electrical room, in which he conducted experiments on electrical charges towards the end of his life, was re-opened in 2016.[48] The experiments had led to the publication in 1897 of Armstrong's last work, Electrical Movement in Air and Water, illustrated with remarkable early photographs by his friend John Worsnop.[49] The Trust continues the reconstruction of the wider estate, with plans to redevelop Armstrong's glasshouses, including the palm house, the ferneries and the orchid house. Cragside is an example of Shaw's Tudor revival style;[14] the Pevsner Architectural Guide for Northumberland called it "the most dramatic Victorian mansion in the North of England".[14] The entrance front was described by Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel as "one of the most dramatic compositions in all architecture",[3] and the architectural historian James Stevens Curl regarded the house as "an extraordinarily accomplished Picturesque composition".[51] Criticism focuses on the building's lack of overall coherence; in The National Trust Book of the English House, Aslet and Powers describe the house as "large and meandering",[52] and the architectural critics Dixon and Muthesius write that "the plan rambles along the hillside".[53] Saint is even more dismissive: for him, "the plan of Cragside is little better than a straggle".[54] The half-timbering above the entrance has also been criticised as unfaithful to the vernacular tradition of the North-East.[14] Shaw would have been unconcerned; desiring it for "romantic effect, he reached out for it like an artist reaching out for a tube of colour".[55] The architectural historian J. Mordaunt Crook considers Cragside to be one of the very few country houses built by the Victorian commercial plutocracy that was truly "avant-garde or trend-setting".[56] In his study, The Rise of the Nouveaux Riches, Crook contends that many new-monied owners were too domineering, and generally chose second-rate architects, as these tended to be more "pliant", allowing the clients to get their own way, rather than those of the first rank such as Shaw.[56] The Rhenish flavour of the house makes a notable contrast with a country house that was almost contemporaneous with Cragside: the Villa Hügel constructed by Armstrong's greatest rival, Alfred Krupp.[57] While Armstrong's Northumbrian fastness drew on Teutonic inspirations, his German competitor designed and built a house that was an exercise in neoclassicism.[58] The location for the house was described by Mark Girouard as "a lunatic site".[59] Pevsner and Richmond call both the setting and the house Wagnerian.[14] The ledge on which it stands is narrow, and space for the repeated expansions could only be found by dynamiting the rock face behind, or by building upwards. Such challenges only drove Armstrong on, and overcoming the technical barriers to construction gave him great pleasure.[60] His task was made easier by the use of the workforce and the technology of the Elswick Works.[61] The architectural historian Jill Franklin notes that the vertiginous fall of the site is so steep that the drawing room, on a level with the first-floor landing at the front of the house, meets the rock face at the back.[62] Jenkins describes the plan of the house as "simpler than the exterior suggests".[30] The majority of the reception rooms are located on the ground floor, as are the accompanying service rooms.[30] The exception is the large extension Shaw added to the south-east from 1882.[63] This includes the drawing room, completed for the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales, in August 1884.[43] The house has been a Grade I listed building since 21 October 1953,[64] the listing citing inter alia its "largely complete Victorian interior".[64] The architectural correspondent of The Times, Marcus Binney, who was closely involved in the campaign to bring Cragside to the National Trust, noted the historic importance of this "virtually untouched interior",[65] with its collections of furnishings, furniture (much designed especially for Cragside), and fine and decorative arts, with work by many notable designers of the period, including William Morris, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Philip Webb and Edward Burne-Jones.[66] Pevsner notes that the art collection demonstrated "what was permissible to the Victorian nobleman in the way of erotica".[67] Kitchen, service rooms and Turkish bath The kitchen is large by Victorian standards and forms a considerable apartment with the butler's pantry.[14] It displays Armstrong's "technical ingenuity" to the full, having a dumb waiter and a spit both run on hydraulic power.[14] An electric gong announced mealtimes.[68] For the visit of Edward and Alexandra, Armstrong brought in the Royal caterers, Gunters, who used the kitchen to prepare an eight-course menu which included oysters, turtle soup, stuffed turbot, venison, grouse, peaches in maraschino jelly and brown bread ice cream.[69] Off the kitchen, under the library, is a Turkish bath suite, an unusual item in a Victorian private house.[14] The writer Michael Hall suggests that the bath, with its plunge pool, was intended as much to demonstrate Armstrong's copious water supply as for actual use.[16] As was often the case, Armstrong also found practical application for his pleasures: steam generated by the Turkish bath supported the provision of heating for the house. Girouard describes the library as "one of the most sympathetic Victorian rooms in England".[55] It belongs to the first phase of Shaw's construction work and was completed in 1872. It has a large bay window which gives views out over the bridge and the glen.[72] The room is half-panelled in oak and the fireplace includes fragments of Egyptian onyx, collected during Armstrong's visit to the country in 1872.[73] The library originally contained some of Armstrong's best pictures, although most were rehung in the gallery or drawing room, following Shaw's later building campaign of the 1880s, and then sold in 1910, ten years after Armstrong's death.[74] The highlight was Albert Joseph Moore's Follow My Leader, dating from 1872.[43] Andrew Saint considers the room "Shaw's greatest domestic interior".[71] The dining room off the library contains a "Gothic" fireplace with an inglenook.[75][d] A portrait of Armstrong by Henry Hetherington Emmerson shows him sitting in the inglenook with his dogs,[81] under a carved inscription on the mantlepiece reading East or West, Hame's Best.[75] The stained glass in the windows of the inglenook is by William Morris, and other glass from Morris & Co., to designs by Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Webb and Ford Madox Brown, was installed in the library, gallery and upper stairs.[82] Owl suite The Owl rooms were constructed in the first building campaign and formed a suite for important guests.[8][83] Their name derives from the carved owls that decorate the woodwork and the bed.[83] The room is panelled in American Black walnut, the same wood from which the tester bed is carved.[75] Saint notes that Shaw was "proud of the design", displaying a further "owl-bed" in an exhibition in 1877.[84] The Prince and Princess of Wales occupied the rooms during their stay at Cragside in 1884.[83] Other bedrooms, notably the Yellow and White rooms, were hung with wallpaper by William Morris, including early versions of his Fruit and Bird and Trellis designs. The wallpapers were reprinted using the original printing blocks and rehung in the National Trust's renovations.[85] Gallery The gallery originally formed Armstrong's museum room and was built by Shaw between 1872 and 1874.[86] It led to the observatory in the Gilnockie Tower. Later, the room formed a processional route to the newly created drawing room, and was transformed into a gallery for pictures and sculpture.[87] Its lighting displayed further evidence of Armstrong's technical ingenuity. Provided with twelve overhead lamps, the lighting for the room could be supplemented by a further eight lamps, powered by electric current transferred from the lamps in the dining room when they were no longer required.[88] Lighting, and his means of providing it, mattered to Armstrong, on both technical and aesthetic levels; he wrote, "in the passageways and stairs the lamps are used without shades and present a most beautiful and star-like appearance." The drawing room was constructed in the 1880s phase of building, when Armstrong had sold his Jesmond house and was residing solely at Cragside.[42] Aslet suggests that the inspiration for the design was the great hall at Haddon Hall, Derbyshire,[31] although Saint considers Shaw's Dawpool Hall, Cheshire as the more likely source.[77][91] Pevsner and Richmond mention Hardwick Hall and Hatfield House as possible models for the "spectacular" overall design.[89] The room contains a colossal marble inglenook chimneypiece, reputed to weigh ten tons, and designed by Shaw's assistant, W. R. Lethaby.[91] Muthesius describes the fireplace as a "splendid example ... with finely composed relief decoration".[92] Jenkins considers it "surely the world's biggest inglenook" and describes the overall impact of the room as "sensational", noting the top-lit ceiling and the elaborate Jacobethan plasterwork.[30] Others have been less complimentary; the writer Reginald Turnor, no admirer either of Shaw or of Victorian architecture and its architects more generally,[93] wrote of the room's "flamboyant and rather sickening detail".[90] By the time of its construction, Shaw, increasingly working for clients of great wealth, had moved on from his "Old English" style,[94] and the room is designed and decorated in a grander and more opulent Renaissance taste.[42][95] Billiard room The billiard room extension of 1895 is by Frederick Waller.[96] It replaced a laboratory, in which Armstrong conducted experiments in electric currents.[97] The billiard table and furniture was supplied by Burroughes and Watts.[98] The billiard room and adjacent gun room[99] formed a smoking suite, the previous absence of which is evidenced in a watercolour painted to commemorate the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales. The Prince and Armstrong are shown smoking cigars on the terrace, as Victorian convention did not permit smoking in the principal reception rooms. After his first visit in 1869, Shaw described the house in a letter to his wife, noting the "wonderful hydraulic machines that do all sorts of things you can imagine".[2] By building dams, Armstrong created five new lakes on the estate, Debdon, Tumbleton, Blackburn, and the Upper and Lower lakes at Nelly's Moss.[104] In 1868, a hydraulic engine was installed. Inspired by a watermill on the Dee in Dentdale,[105] in 1870 Armstrong installed a Siemens dynamo in what was the world's first hydroelectric power station.[67] The generators, which also provided power for the farm buildings on the estate, were constantly extended and improved to meet the increasing electrical demands in the house. The 2006 regeneration project included extensive rewiring.[45] A new screw turbine, with a 17-metre (56 ft)-long Archimedes' screw, was installed in 2014; it can provide 12 kW, supplying around 10 per cent of the property's electricity consumption.[f][107] The electricity generated was used to power an arc lamp installed in the picture gallery in 1878. This was replaced in 1880 by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamps in what Swan considered "the first proper installation" of electric lighting.[108] Armstrong knew Swan well and had chaired the presentation of Swan's new lamps to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. Historic England describes Cragside as the "first (house) in the world to be lit by electricity derived from water power".[64] The use of electricity to run the house's appliances and internal systems made Cragside a pioneer of home automation; one of the first private residences to have a dishwasher, a vacuum cleaner and a washing machine, the conservators Sarah Schmitz and Caroline Rawson suggest Cragside was "the place where modern living began".[45] The spit in the kitchen was also powered by hydraulics.[31] The conservatory contained a self-watering system for the pot plants, which turned on water-powered revolving stands.[16] Telephony was introduced, both between the rooms in the house, and between the house and other buildings on the estate.[109] A plaque at Bamburgh Castle, Armstrong's other residence on the Northumbrian coast, records that his development of these new automated technologies "emancipated ... much of the world from household drudgery". Cragside is named after Cragend Hill above the house, and is surrounded by an extensive rock garden, with a collection of rhododendrons, one of which is named after Lady Armstrong, who made a considerable contribution to the design and construction of the gardens,[111] and large plantings of mostly coniferous trees.[112] Among these is the tallest Scots pine in Britain, at a height of 131ft (40m).[113] Over one hundred years after their planting, Jill Franklin wrote that, "the great, dark trees form a protective barrier to (Armstrong's) home".[114] Armstrong continued to buy land after the purchase of the original site and by the 1880s the gardens and grounds comprised some 1,700 acres,[16] with the wider estate, including Armstrong's agricultural holdings, extending to 15,000 acres according to Henrietta Heald's 2012 biography of Armstrong,[115] and to over 16,000 acres according to the historian David Cannadine.[116] David Dougan records the traditional claim that Armstrong planted over seven million trees in the gardens and parkland.[117] The estate is a sanctuary for some of the last remaining red squirrel colonies in England. The glen north-west of the house is spanned by an iron bridge, crossing the Debdon Burn, constructed to Armstrong's design[118] at his Elswick Works in the 1870s.[67] It is a Grade II* listed structure[119] and was restored by the Trust, and reopened to the public in 2008–2009.[120] The gardens themselves are listed Grade I,[121] and some of the architectural and technological structures have their own historic listings.[122] The Clock Tower, which regulated life on the estate,[123] dates from the time of the construction of the shooting lodge, and might have been designed by the same architect; it is not by Shaw.[124] It is possible that Armstrong himself designed the clock.[125] Like the bridge, the Clock Tower has a Grade II* listing.[125] The formal gardens, where Armstrong's great greenhouses stood and which were long separated from the main estate, have now been acquired by the Trust.[126] Media appearances Cragside has featured in an Open University Arts Foundation Course,[127] Jonathan Meades's documentary series Abroad Again in Britain,[128] BBC One's Britain's Hidden Heritage,[129] and Glorious Gardens from above,[130] and ITV's series Inside the National Trust.[131] The 2017 film The Current War was partly filmed at the estate.[132] Cragside featured as the basis for the representation of Lockwood Manor in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. Northumberland (/nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/[2]) is a historic county and unitary authority in North East England. The latter has a headquarters at Morpeth and borders east Cumbria, north County Durham and north Tyne and Wear. The historic county town is Alnwick.[3] It and the historic county of Durham are traditionally known together as Northumbria. The North Sea is to the east of the county; a path runs 103 kilometres (64 mi) along its coastline.[4] Lying south of the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of historic battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated ceremonial county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre. County administration included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400. The city became a county corporate, the early system was similar to the present system of unitary authorities which later became ceremonial.[5] The historic county expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572.[6] Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into the historic county in 1844.[7] The Borough of North Tyneside and City of Newcastle-upon-Tyne were created with ceremonial and administrative duties transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Northumberland County Hall officially moved from the city to Morpeth on 21 April 1981. [8] The North of Tyne Combined Authority was established on the 2 November 2018, covering the counties historic borders.[9] The name of Northumberland is recorded as norð hẏmbra land in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the land north of the Humber". The name of the kingdom of Northumbria derives from the Old English Norþan-hymbre meaning "the people or province north of the Humber",[10] as opposed to the people south of the Humber Estuary. History Main article: History of Northumberland Long Crag summit The land has long been an English frontier zone, with it being currently bordered to the north by Scotland. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, and stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills to Melrose, Scottish Borders (Latin: Trimontium). As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England,[11] including those at Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth. An early mention of Northumberland as norð hẏmbra land "north of Humber land" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Later, the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia (from about 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian that contains present-day Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria (reigned 634–642) invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels (around 700). It became the home of St Cuthbert (about 634–687, abbot from about 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century. The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237). The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569–1570) against Elizabeth I. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur (1364–1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1. The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles by the victorious Parliamentarians after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603.[12] Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Blyth, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains largely rural, and is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its scenic beauty and its historical sites. Archaeology Nearly 2000-year-old Roman boxing gloves were uncovered at Vindolanda in 2017 by the Vindolanda Trust experts, led by Andrew Birley. According to the Guardian, being similar in style and function to the full-hand modern boxing gloves, these two gloves found at Vindolanda look like leather bands date back to 120 AD. It is suggested that, based on their difference from gladiator gloves, warriors using this type of gloves had no purpose to kill each other, and that the gloves probably were used in a sport for promoting fighting skills. The gloves are currently displayed at Vindolanda's museum.[13] Physical geography Physical geography of Northumberland and surrounding areas N NE England SRTM.png Northumberland has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat near the North Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. Being in the far north of England, above 55° latitude, and having many areas of high land, Northumberland is one of the coldest areas of the country. However, the county lies on the east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the west.[14] Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the Northumberland National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian's Wall. Most of the park is over 240 metres (790 feet) above sea level. The Northumberland Coast is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). A small part of the North Pennines AONB is also in the county. Natural England recognises the following natural regions, or national character areas, that lie wholly or partially within Northumberland:[15] North Northumberland Coastal Plain South East Northumberland Coastal Plain Cheviot Fringe Cheviot Hills Northumberland Sandstone Hills Mid Northumberland Tyne Gap and Hadrian's Wall Border Moors and Forests Tyne and Wear Lowlands Geology Main article: Geology of Northumberland River Coquet The Cheviot Hills, in the northwest of the county, consist mainly of resistant Devonian granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies the Whin Sill (on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of Carboniferous dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the Whin Sill the county lies on Carboniferous Limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape.[16] Lying off the coast of Northumberland are the Farne Islands, another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life. The Northumberland Coalfield extends across the southeast corner of the county, from the River Tyne as far north as Shilbottle. There were smaller scale workings for coal within the Tyne Limestone Formation as far north as Scremerston.[17][18][19] The term 'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings. Ecology and environment There is a variety of notable habitats and species in Northumberland including: Chillingham Cattle herd; Holy Island; Farne Islands; and Staple Island. Moreover, 50% of England's red squirrel population lives in the Kielder Water and Forest Park along with a large variety of other species including roe deer and wildfowl.[citation needed] Green belt Further information: North East Green Belt Hadrian's Wall Northumberland's green belt is in the south of the county, surrounding Cramlington and other communities along the county border, to afford a protection from the Tyneside conurbation. The belt continues west along the border, past Darras Hall, and on to Hexham, stopping before Haydon Bridge. Its border there is shared with the North Pennines AONB. There are also some separated belt areas, for example to the east of Morpeth. The green belt was first drawn up in the 1950s. Economy and industry Housedon Hill Northumberland's industry is dominated by some multinational corporations: Coca-Cola, MSD, GE and Drager all have significant facilities in the region.[20] Tourism is a major source of employment and income in Northumberland. In the early 2000s the county annually received 1.1 million British visitors and 50,000 foreign tourists, who spent a total of £162 million. Coal mining in the county goes back to Tudor times. Coal mines continue to operate today; many of them are open-cast mines. Planning approval was given in January 2014 for an open-cast mine at Halton Lea Gate near Lambley.[21] A major employer in Northumberland is Hexham-based Egger (UK) Limited.[22][23] Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology Pharmaceutical, healthcare and emerging medical biotechnology companies form a very significant part of the county's economy.[24] Many of these companies are part of the approximately 11,000-worker[25] Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) and include Aesica Pharmaceuticals,[26] Arcinova, MSD, Piramal Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, Shire Plc (formerly SCM Pharma),[27] Shasun Pharma Solutions,[28] Specials Laboratory,[29] and Thermo Fisher Scientific. The cluster also includes Cambridge Bioresearch, GlaxoSmithKline, Fujifilm Diosynth Biotech, Leica Bio, Data Trial, High Force Research, Non-Linear Dynamics, and Immuno Diagnostic Systems (IDS). The towns of Alnwick, Cramlington, Morpeth, Prudhoe all have significant pharmaceutical factories and laboratories.[30] Newcastle University and Northumbria University are the leading academic institutions nearby. The local industry includes commercial or academic activity in pre-clinical research and development, clinical research and development, pilot-scale manufacturing, full-scale active pharmaceutical ingredient/intermediate manufacturing, formulation, packaging, and distribution.[31] Education Main article: List of schools in Northumberland Northumberland has a completely comprehensive education system, with 15 state schools, two academies and one independent school. Like Bedfordshire, it embraced the comprehensive ideal with the three-tier system of lower/middle/upper schools with large school year sizes (often around 300). This eliminated choice of school in most areas: instead of having two secondary schools in one town, one school became a middle school and another became an upper school. A programme introduced in 2006 known as Putting the Learner First has eliminated this structure in the former areas of Blyth Valley and Wansbeck, where two-tier education has been introduced. Although the two processes are not officially connected, the introduction of two tiers has coincided with the move to build academy schools in Blyth, with Bede Academy and in Ashington at Hirst. One response to these changes has been the decision of Ponteland High School to apply for Trust status. Cramlington Learning Village has almost 400 pupils in each school year, making it one of the largest schools in England. The Blyth Academy in southeast Northumberland can hold 1,500 students throughout the building. Astley Community High School in Seaton Delaval, which accepts students from Seaton Delaval, Seaton Sluice and Blyth, has been the subject of controversial remarks from politicians claiming it would no longer be viable once Bede Academy opened in Blyth, a claim strongly disputed by the headteacher. Haydon Bridge High School, in rural Northumberland, is claimed to have the largest catchment area of any school in England, reputedly covering an area larger than that encompassed by the M25 motorway around London. The county of Northumberland is served by one Catholic high school, St Benet Biscop Catholic Academy in Bedlington, which is attended by students from all over the area. Students from Northumberland also attend independent schools such as the Royal Grammar School in Newcastle. Demographics Ambox current red Americas.svg This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (September 2018) At the Census 2001 Northumberland registered a population of 307,190,[32] estimated to be 309,237 in 2003,[33] The 2011 census gave a population of 316,028.[34] In 2001 there were 130,780 households, 10% of which were all retired, and one third were rented. Northumberland has an ethnic minority population at 0.985% of the population, compared to 9.1% for England as a whole. In the 2001 census, 81% of the population reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and 12% as having no religion.[35] Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the population density of Northumberland is only 62 persons per square kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in England. Politics Main article: Northumberland County Council See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland Northumberland County Council Northumberland is a unitary authority area and is the largest unitary area in England. The County Council is based in Morpeth. Like most English shire counties Northumberland had until April 2009 a two-tier system of local government, with one county council and six districts, each with their own district council, responsible for different aspects of local government. These districts were Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The districts were abolished on the 1 April 2009, the county council becoming a unitary authority. Elections for the new unitary authority council first took place on 1 May 2008. The County Council elections in 2017 returned the following results: County Council Election 2021: Northumberland Conservatives Labour Liberal Democrats Independents UKIP Green Turnout 47,645 31,038 8,549 9,063 N/A 5,285 104,188 Overall Council seats as of 2021 Conservative Labour Independents LibDem UKIP Green Total 34 (Increase1) 21 (Decrease3) 7 (Increase0) 3 (Decrease0) 0 (Steady) 2 (Steady) 47 House of Commons Northumberland is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies: Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck and Hexham. The 2019 General Election produced the following results: General Election 2019 : Northumberland Liberal Democrats Labour Conservative Christian Peoples Alliance Green Brexit Turnout 17018 + 855 57567 - 16665 83663 + 6764 178 did not stand in 2017 election 3,673 - 3,167 6535 new party 103677 Overall numbers of seats as of 2019 Labour Conservative 1 Ian Lavery 3 Anne-Marie Trevelyan Guy Opperman Ian Levy Ian Lavery Labour MP (Wansbeck) alt language Anne-Marie Trevelyan Conservative MP (Berwick upon Tweed) Guy Opperman Conservative MP (Hexham) alt language Ian Levy Conservative MP (Blyth Valley) 2016 European Union Referendum On 23 June 2016, Northumberland took part in the UK-wide referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. In Northumberland a majority voted to leave the European Union. At Westminster constituency level the only area in Northumberland to vote Remain was Hexham. EU Referendum 2016 : Northumberland Leave Remain Majority Turnout 96,699 54.11% 82,022 45.89% 14,677 8.22% 178,721 Culture Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These include the rapper sword dance, the clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe, a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish bagpipe. Northumberland also has its own tartan or check, sometimes referred to in Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumberland music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria and the Lowlands of Scotland, and the large Irish population on Tyneside. The border ballads of the region have been famous since late mediaeval times. Thomas Percy, whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who sang the border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider popularity. William Morris considered them to be the greatest poems in the language, while Algernon Charles Swinburne knew virtually all of them by heart. One of the best-known is the stirring "Chevy Chase", which tells of the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the Border "maugre the doughty Douglas". Of it, the Elizabethan courtier, soldier and poet Sir Philip Sidney famously said, "I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet". Ben Jonson said that he would give all his works to have written "Chevy Chase". Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the North East of England in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland culture than with that of Southern England. One reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, a fact borne out by the linguistic links between the two regions. These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language and Northumbrian dialect).[36][37] The other reason for the close cultural links is the clear pattern of net southward migration. There are more Scots in England than English people north of the border. Much of this movement is cross-county rather than distant migration, and the incomers thus bring aspects of their culture as well as reinforce shared cultural traits from both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border. Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus thought by some that the Anglo-Scottish border is largely political rather than cultural.[37][38] Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and other Northumbrian dialects) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent.[36][37] Northumberland's county flower is the bloody cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS Northumberland. Flag Northumberland flag Northumberland has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of Northumberland County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia (which the first County Council used until it was granted its own arms). The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by Bede's brief description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century.[39] The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland in 1995.[40] Sport Football A precursor of modern football is still seen in the region at some annual Shrove Tuesday games at Alnwick.[41] In 1280 at Ulgham near Morpeth Northumberland, records show that Henry of Ellington was killed playing football when David Le Keu's knife went into Henry's belly and killed him.[42][43] Organised football teams as we know today did not appear until the 1870s. Newcastle United Football Club was formed in 1892 by uniting Newcastle West End FC with Newcastle East End.[44] Newcastle United were first division champions three times in the early 20th century, reaching the FA Cup Final three times before winning it at the fourth attempt in 1910.[45] Today top quality professional football remains in Northumberland. In 2017 - 18 season Newcastle United is a Premier League team. St James' Park in Newcastle is a first class football venue, often used for international games at all levels. Blyth Spartans A.F.C. have had success and public attention through Football Association Cup runs. Notable associated footballers There are many notable footballers from the county, pre Second World War and immediate post war greats were George Camsell and Hughie Gallacher, these were described in the "Clown Prince of Football" by Len Shackleton. The author played for Newcastle United and Northumberland County Cricket Club. Shackleton’s book was controversial when it was first published because chapter 9, named "The Average Director's Knowledge of Football", was produced as a blank page.[46] Notable players after the Second World War included Joe Harvey, Jackie Milburn,[47] Brian Clough[48] and Newcastle's Bobby Moncur who led his team to win the Inter City Fairs Cup in 1969.[49] Two of Jackie Milburn’s nephews from Ashington, Bobby Charlton and Jackie Charlton are perhaps the two most significant players for England.[50][51] Bobby joined Manchester United and Jackie Leeds United both contributing much to the success and history of their respective clubs. They both became permanent fixtures in Alf Ramsey's 1966 England World Cup winning team.[52] Malcolm Macdonald was a successful Newcastle player of the 1970s. Great national players who played at Northumberland clubs in the 1980s and 1990s include Peter Beardsley, Paul Gascoigne, Chris Waddle and Alan Shearer. Shearer remains the highest scoring player in Premier League history with 260 goals in 441 appearances.[53] Horse racing Early races were held at Newcastle's Killingworth Moor from 1632 before moving to the Town Moor. The 'Pitmen's Derby' or Northumberland Plate was held from 1833 and moved to Gosforth in 1882.[54] Modern day horse racing still takes place at Newcastle Racecourse.[55] Golf Golf is a Scottish import to many countries but it is said to have been played in this region by St Cuthbert on the dunes of the Northumberland coast. The oldest club in Northumberland was at Alnmouth, founded in 1869, it is the fourth oldest in the country and is now Alnmouth Village Club and a 9 hole links course.[56] There is one old links courses at Goswick. It is a James Braid design masterpiece which is widely acknowledged as a classic Northumberland links course[57] so much so, that the Royal and Ancient Golf Club (R&A) chose Goswick as a regional qualifier for the Open Championship for five years from 2008. During the English Civil War of 1642–1651, King Charles played 'Goff' in the Shield Fields suburb of Pandon during his imprisonment in the town.[58] Today inland golf courses are abundant in the county,[59] The county has a professional golfer who has played in many professional golf tour events: Kenny Ferrie from Ashington who has won events on the prestigious European Tour. Other A cricket ground in Bamburgh The annual Great North Run, one of the best known half marathons in which thousands of participants run from Newcastle to South Shields. In 2013 the 33rd Great North Run had 56,000 participants most of whom were raising money for charity. Media Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area (The Journal, Evening Chronicle). It is worth remembering however that although Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre—Newcastle upon Tyne—remains an essential element within the entity we know as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its Northumbrian hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the Northumberland Gazette, Morpeth Herald, Berwick Advertiser, Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader. Lionheart Radio, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently[when?] been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by Ofcom. Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the county. Notable people George Stephenson was born in Northumberland Born in Northumberland Ashington was the birthplace of three famous footballers: Bobby and Jack Charlton, born in 1937 and 1935 respectively, and Jackie Milburn, born in 1924. In 1978 the international cricketer Steve Harmison was born in the same town. Mickley was the birthplace of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist born in 1753, and Bob Stokoe, a footballer and F.A. Cup-winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973) born in 1930. Other notable births include: Thomas Addison, the physician who first described Addison's Disease, born at Longbenton in 1793 George Airy, Astronomer Royal and geophysicist, born at Alnwick in 1802 Alexander Armstrong, comedy actor and presenter, born at Rothbury in 1970 Allan Boardman (1937-2018), British physicist[60] Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, landscape and garden designer, born at Kirkharle in 1715 Josephine Butler, social reformer, born at Milfield in 1828 Basil Bunting, poet, born at Scotswood-on-Tyne in 1900 Eric Burdon, singer and leader of The Animals and War, born at Walker-on-Tyne in 1941 Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, naval commander at the Battle of Trafalgar, born at Newcastle upon Tyne in 1748 Grace Darling, sea-rescue heroine, born at Bamburgh in 1815 Pete Doherty, musician, born at Hexham in 1979 Bryan Donkin, engineer and industrialist, born at Sandhoe in 1768 Wilfrid Wilson Gibson, poet, born at Hexham in 1878 Daniel Gooch, engineer and politician, born at Bedlington in 1816 Sir Alistair Graham (1942–), trade unionist and civil servant Tom Graveney, former England cricketer and President of the Marylebone Cricket Club 2004/5, born in Riding Mill in 1927. Robson Green, actor and singer, born at Hexham in 1964 Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, British Prime Minister, born at the family seat of Howick Hall in 1764 William Hewson,[61] British physician, the "Father of Haematology", at Hexham, 14 Nov 1739 Jean Heywood, actress, born at Blyth best known for Our Day Out and All Creatures Great and Small. Marie Lebour (1876–1971), British marine biologist Robert Morrison (1782-1834), Protestant missionary and sinologist Richard Pattison, climber, born in Ashington in 1975 Matt Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley, peer, science writer, and businessman John Rushworth (1793–1860), historian, born at Acklington Park, Warkworth George Stephenson, pioneering railway engineer, born at Wylam in 1781 Trevor Steven, footballer born in Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1963 Percival Stockdale, poet and slave-trade abolitionist, born 1736 in Branxton, Northumberland Ross Noble, stand-up comedian, born and raised in Cramlington in the 1970s and 1980s Hugh Trevor-Roper (1914–2003), Oxford historian, born at Glanton William Turner, ornithologist and botanist born at Morpeth in 1508 Sid Waddell, sports commentator and children's television screenwriter, born at Alnwick in 1940 Veronica Wedgwood (1910–1997), historian, usually published as C. V. Wedgwood N. T. Wright, Anglican theologian and author, former Bishop of Durham, born in Morpeth in 1948 Kevin Whately, actor, born in Humshaugh, near Hexham in 1951 Billy Younger (1940–2007), footballer Linked with Northumberland Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland William Armstrong, engineer and inventor, born at Newcastle in 1810, built Cragside, one of the first houses powered by hydroelectric technology, near the town of Rothbury in Northumberland. Thomas Burt, one of the first working-class members of parliament and was secretary of the Northumberland Miners' Association in 1863 Matthew Festing, 79th Grand Master, the Order of Malta. Kitty Fitzgerald (born September 25, 1946) is an Irish born writer living in Northumberland. Allan Holdsworth, guitarist, originated from Newcastle upon Tyne before moving to California. Mark Knopfler, guitarist and frontman of Dire Straits, was raised in his mother's hometown of Blyth, Northumberland. Charles Algernon Parsons, inventor of the steam turbine while living in Wylam, Northumberland Henry 'Hotspur' Percy (1365–1403), borders warlord and rebel Billy Pigg, a 20th-century musician who was vice-President of the Northumbrian Pipers Society Alan Shearer footballer, lives in Ponteland. Gordon Sumner, better known by his stage name of Sting, a schoolteacher turned musician was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1951 Algernon Charles Swinburne, a poet raised at Capheaton Hall Kathryn Tickell, a modern-day player of the Northumbrian smallpipes J. M. W. Turner, Thomas Girtin and John Cotman all painted memorable pictures of Northumberland. Turner always attributed Norham Castle as the foundation of his fame and fortune. Jonny Wilkinson, English rugby player, currently lives in rural Northumberland. The site [1] contains exhaustive detailed entries for notable deceased Northumbrians. Settlements See also: List of places in Northumberland and List of settlements in Northumberland by population Parishes NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from the list, see List of civil parishes in Northumberland. Parishes of Northumberland[62] Name Population (2001) Former district/borough Acklington 467 Alnwick Acomb 1,184 Tynedale Adderstone with Lucker 195 Berwick-upon-Tweed Akeld 82 Berwick-upon-Tweed Allendale 2,120 Tynedale Alnham 99 Alnwick Alnmouth 562 Alnwick Alnwick 7,767 Alnwick Alwinton 71 Alnwick Amble 6,044 Alnwick Ancroft 885 Berwick-upon-Tweed Bamburgh 454 Berwick-upon-Tweed Bardon Mill 364 Tynedale Bavington 99 Tynedale Beadnell 528 Berwick-upon-Tweed Belford 1,055 Berwick-upon-Tweed Belsay 436 Castle Morpeth Bewick 69 Berwick-upon-Tweed Biddlestone 88 Alnwick Bowsden 157 Berwick-upon-Tweed Branxton 121 Berwick-upon-Tweed Brinkburn 200 Alnwick Callaly 150 Alnwick Capheaton 160 Castle Morpeth Carham 347 Berwick-upon-Tweed Cartington 97 Alnwick Chatton 438 Berwick-upon-Tweed Cornhill-on-Tweed 318 Berwick-upon-Tweed Craster 342 Alnwick Cresswell 237 Castle Morpeth Denwick 266 Alnwick Doddington 146 Berwick-upon-Tweed Earle 89 Berwick-upon-Tweed Easington 139 Berwick-upon-Tweed East Chevington 3,192 Castle Morpeth Edlingham 196 Alnwick Eglingham 357 Alnwick Ellingham 282 Berwick-upon-Tweed Ellington and Linton 2,678 Castle Morpeth Elsdon 205 Alnwick Embleton 699 Alnwick Ewart 72 Berwick-upon-Tweed Felton 958 Alnwick Ford 487 Berwick-upon-Tweed Glanton 222 Alnwick Harbottle 235 Alnwick Hartburn 198 Castle Morpeth Hauxley 220 Alnwick Haydon 2,184 Tynedale Hebron 679 Castle Morpeth Heddon-on-the-Wall 1,518 Castle Morpeth Hedgeley 322 Alnwick Hepple 139 Alnwick Hepscott 898 Castle Morpeth Hesleyhurst 30 Alnwick Hexham 11,829 Tynedale Hollinghill 90 Alnwick Holy Island 162 Berwick-upon-Tweed Horncliffe 374 Berwick-upon-Tweed Ilderton 94 Berwick-upon-Tweed Ingram 148 Berwick-upon-Tweed Kilham 131 Berwick-upon-Tweed Kirknewton 108 Berwick-upon-Tweed Kyloe 323 Berwick-upon-Tweed Lesbury 871 Alnwick Lilburn 106 Berwick-upon-Tweed Longframlington 979 Alnwick Longhirst 446 Castle Morpeth Longhorsley 798 Castle Morpeth Longhoughton 1,442 Alnwick Lowick 559 Berwick-upon-Tweed Lynemouth 1,832 Castle Morpeth Matfen 495 Castle Morpeth Meldon 162 Castle Morpeth Middleton 136 Berwick-upon-Tweed Milfield 243 Berwick-upon-Tweed Mitford 431 Castle Morpeth Morpeth 13,833 Castle Morpeth Netherton 194 Alnwick Netherwitton 272 Castle Morpeth Newton-by-the-Sea 242 Alnwick Newton on the Moor and Swarland 822 Alnwick Norham 536 Berwick-upon-Tweed North Sunderland 1,803 Berwick-upon-Tweed Nunnykirk 138 Alnwick Ord, Northumberland 1,365 Berwick-upon-Tweed Pegswood 3,174 Castle Morpeth Ponteland 10,871 Castle Morpeth Prudhoe 11,500 Tynedale Rennington 305 Alnwick Roddam 77 Berwick-upon-Tweed Rothbury 1,740 Alnwick Rothley 136 Alnwick Shilbottle 1,349 Alnwick Shoreswood 163 Berwick-upon-Tweed Snitter 114 Alnwick Stamfordham 1,047 Castle Morpeth Stannington 1,219 Castle Morpeth Thirston 510 Castle Morpeth Thropton 409 Alnwick Togston 340 Alnwick Tritlington and West Chevington 218 Castle Morpeth Ulgham 365 Castle Morpeth Wallington Demesne 361 Castle Morpeth Warkworth 1,493 Alnwick Whalton 427 Castle Morpeth Whittingham 406 Alnwick Whitton and Tosson 223 Alnwick Widdrington 158 Castle Morpeth Widdrington Station and Stobswood 2,386 Castle Morpeth Wooler 1,857 Berwick-upon-Tweed Although not on this list, the population of Cramlington is estimated at 39,000. Historic areas Some settlements that is part historic county of Northumberland now fall under the county of Tyne and Wear: Tyne and Wear Killingworth, Longbenton, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century and has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century.[9] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.[10] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation,[11] and its Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.[12] England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. England's population of 56.3 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom,[4] largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.[13] The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.[14][15] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[16] The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "l

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