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Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire

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posted by alias Glass Angel on Tuesday 26th of February 2019 12:37:22 PM

Kedleston Hall Grade: I List Entry Number: 1311507 Listing NGR: SK3127140296 Details SK 34 SW PARISH OF KEDLESTON KEDLESTON PARK 3/41 Kedleston Hall 25.9.51 GV I Large country house, set in large landscape park. 1758-65 by Matthew Brettingham, James Paine and Robert Adam. Interiors complete by the 1780s. Red brick faced in ashlar and render. Hipped Welsh slate roofs. Various brick stacks largely hidden within the roof wells. Main rectangular block with quadrant colonnades and rectangular pavilions following Palladio's Villa Mocenigo. Rusticated basement, piano nobile and attic storeys. Principal north front: Centre block of eleven bays. Hexastyle, giant Corinthian portico over a basement of five round arches. Three statues on the pediment. Double staircase. In the portico, central doorway flanked by niches with statues. Medallions above depicting vintage, pasturage, ploughing, and bear hunting, 1769 by William Collins. Dentilled cornice and blocking course. Three bays on either side of the portico with square sash windows to the basement, glazing bar sashes in pedimented aedicules above and rectangular attic windows with moulded surrounds. Quandrants on either side without an attic storey. The basement continues the round-arched arcade, with windows set in. Glazing bar sashes above, with balustrading below the sills as on the main block. The bays divided by Tuscan pilasters. Tripartite windows to the return walls. Linked to identical pavilions, lower than the main block but still with basement, piano nobile and attic storeys. The upper storeys are cement rendered. Five bays, with four attached Ionic columns supporting a pediment. Similar fenestration to main block but with plain surrounds. South front of 3-3-3 bays. The centre piece derived from the Arch of Constantine. Four detached Corinthian columns standing close to the antae and pilasters against the wall. Each column carrying its own piece of entablature with statues above, in front of an attic with the date 1765 inscribed. Shallow lead dome above. Double staircase with sharply curved flights. Central door- way with pedimented Corinthian aedicule, set within a blind round arch, and flanked by niches with statues and medallions above, as on the north front. Frieze of swags and medallions above. The outer bays are given similar but less grand treatment, to those on the main north front. The east and west elevations of 2-3-2 bays are treated more simply, with the central feature of a Venetian window. That on the west side was at an early date blocked. The south elevations of the pavilions are likewise treated in a plainer manner, the three centre bays advanced beneath a pediment. Interior: The main entrance is into the magnificent Marble Hall, about 67ft by 37ft, and 40ft high (taking in the attic storey). Two rows of giant Corinthian columns of pink Nottinghamshire alabaster. They were fluted in 1775, against the advice of Robert Adam. Frieze and coved ceiling with delicate stucco decoration by Joseph Rose to a design by George Richardson. Hoptonwood stone floor with inlay, designed by Adam. Around the walls are niches with casts of antique sculpture. Above are grisaille panels of Homeric subjects. Chimneypieces with elaborate over- mantles by Rose, incorporating painted roundels. Beyond, in the relationship of 'atrium' and 'Vestibulum', is the saloon, a full-height domed rotunda. Apsed niches in the corners filling the square outer walls. Coffered dome and central skylight. Pedimented doorcases with pilasters of blue scagliola. Frieze of anthemion and palmette. Painted panels of ruins, by Gavin Hamilton, and grisaille panels of scenes of British Worthies by J B Rebecca. In the niches are four cast iron vases on pedestals. Two of them are stoves. The Music Room has Ionic doorcases and delicate plaster ceiling designed by Adam. Marble chimneypiece inlaid with Blue John. The State Drawing Room, lit by a Venetian window to east. Corinthian order for the alabaster window and door surrounds. Chimneypiece with scene of virtue rewarded by honour and riches, by Spang. The Library with severe Roman Doric doorcase. Bookcases designed by Adam. Plaster ceiling divided into octagonal patterns. Triglyph frieze. Beyond the Saloon is the principal Dressing Room (also called the State Boudoir), preceeded by an anteroom, and the two divided by a tripartite screen with pierced segmental arch above the entablature. More delicate plaster ceiling. Chimneypiece brought from elsewhere c1908. Similar decoration in the State Bedroom with fine chimney- piece. Beyond is the Wardrobe (also called the Dressing Room) which communicates with the Dining Room. Apse at the west end, flanked by stucco medallions by William Collins. Ceiling with painted panels by Zucchi (continents), Hamilton (seasons) and Moorland (centre). Chimneypiece with termini caryatids by Spang. The Main Staircase is off the Marble Hall. Cantilvered stone staircase around a rectangular well. Carved tread ends, wrought iron balusters, delicate wreathed and ramped handrial. Stucco panels of 1924. The staircase leads up to the semi-state bedrooms with plain coved ceilings, dentil cornicing and plain marble chimneypieces. Some of the doors may be re-used from the earlier Hall. Three other staircases, of stone, cantilvered with stick balusters. Beneath the Marble Hall a low hall with two rows of stone columns, and two rows of iron columns inserted in 1806. The north west pavilion houses the kitchens and service rooms. The north east pavilion houses the family apartments. Sources: Christopher Hussey: English Country Houses: Mid-Georgian 1760-1800 Country Life 1956, Second edition 1984. pp72-78 Unpublished information from Mr Leslie Harris, Kedleston Archives Country Life 24 August 1901; 20 & 27 December 1913; 26 January 1978, pp 194-197, 2 February 1978 pp 262-266; 9 February 1978 pp 322-325 Listing NGR: SK3127140296 Sources Books and journals Hussey, C, English Country Houses Mid Georgian 1760-1800, (1956) 'Country Life' in 9 February, (1978), 322-325 'Country Life' in 26 January, (1978), 194-197 'Country Life' in 20 December, (1913) 'Country Life' in 24 August, (1901) 'Country Life' in 27 December, (1913) 'Country Life' in 2 February, (1978), 262-266 ——————————————————————————————————————————- Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Curzon family whose name originates in Notre-Dame-de-Courson in Normandy. Today it is a National Trust property. The Curzon family have owned the estate at Kedleston since at least 1297 and have lived in a succession of manor houses near to or on the site of the present Kedleston Hall. The present house was commissioned by Sir Nathaniel Curzon (later 1st Baron Scarsdale) in 1759. The house was designed by the Palladian architects James Paine and Matthew Brettingham and was loosely based on an original plan by Andrea Palladio for the never-built Villa Mocenigo. At the time a relatively unknown architect, Robert Adam was designing some garden temples to enhance the landscape of the park; Curzon was so impressed with Adam's designs, that Adam was quickly put in charge of the construction of the new mansion. World War II In 1939, Kedleston Hall was offered by Richard Curzon, 2nd Viscount Scarsdale for use by the War Department.[1] Kedleston Hall provided various facilities during the period 1939–45 including its use as a mustering point and army training camp. It also formed one of the Y-stations used to gather Signals Intelligence via radio transmissions which, if encrypted, were subsequently passed to Bletchley Park for decryption. National Trust In the 1970s the estate was too expensive for the Curzon family to maintain. When Richard Nathaniel Curzon, 2nd Viscount Scarsdale died, his cousin Francis Curzon, 3rd Viscount Scarsdale offered the estate to the nation in lieu of death duties. A deal was agreed with the National Trust that it should take over Kedleston while still allowing the family to live rent-free in the 23-room Family Wing, which contained an adjoining garden and two rent-free flats for servants or other family members. External design The design of the three-floored house is of three blocks linked by two segmentally curved corridors. The ground floor is rusticated, while the upper floors are of smooth-dressed stone. The central, largest block contains the state rooms and was intended for use only when there were important guests in the house. The East block was a self-contained country house in its own right, containing all the rooms for the family's private use, and the identical West block contained the kitchens and all other domestic rooms and staff accommodation. Plans for two more pavilions (as the two smaller blocks are known) of identical size, and similar appearance were not executed. These further wings were intended to contain, in the south east a music room, and south west a conservatory and chapel. Externally these latter pavilions would have differed from their northern counterparts by large glazed Serlian windows on the piano nobile of their southern facades. Here the blocks were to appear as of two floors only; a mezzanine was to have been disguised in the north of the music room block. The linking galleries here were also to contain larger windows, than on the north, and niches containing classical statuary. If the great north front, approximately 107 metres in length, is Palladian in character, dominated by the massive, six-columned Corinthian portico, then the south front (illustrated right) is pure Robert Adam. It is divided into three distinct sets of bays; the central section is a four-columned, blind triumphal arch (based on the Arch of Constantine in Rome) containing one large, pedimented glass door reached from the rusticated ground floor by an external, curved double staircase. Above the door, at second-floor height, are stone garlands and medallions in relief. The four Corinthian columns are topped by classical statues. This whole centre section of the facade is crowned by a low dome visible only from a distance. Flanking the central section are two identical wings on three floors, each three windows wide, the windows of the first-floor piano nobile being the tallest. Adam's design for this facade contains huge "movement" and has a delicate almost fragile quality. Gardens and grounds The gardens and grounds, as they appear today, are largely the concept of Robert Adam. Adam was asked by Nathaniel Curzon in 1758 to "take in hand the deer park and pleasure grounds". The landscape gardener William Emes had begun work at Kedleston in 1756, and he continued in Curzon's employ until 1760; however, it was Adam who was the guiding influence. It was during this period that the former gardens designed by Charles Bridgeman were swept away in favour of a more natural-looking landscape. Bridgeman's canals and geometric ponds were metamorphosed into serpentine lakes. Adam designed numerous temples and follies, many of which were never built. Those that were include the North lodge (which takes the form of a triumphal arch), the entrance lodges in the village, a bridge, cascade and the Fishing Room. The Fishing Room is one of the most noticeable of the park's buildings. In the neoclassical style it is sited on the edge of the upper lake and contains a plunge pool and boat house below. Some of Adam's unexecuted design for follies in the park rivalled in grandeur the house itself. A "View Tower" designed in 1760 – 84 feet high and 50 feet wide on five floors, surmounted by a saucer dome flanked by the smaller domes of flanking towers — would have been a small neoclassical palace itself. Adam planned to transform even mundane utilitarian buildings into architectural wonders. A design for a pheasant house (a platform to provide a vantage point for the game shooting) became a domed temple, the roofs of its classical porticos providing the necessary platforms; this plan too was never completed. Among the statuary in the grounds is a Medici lion sculpture carved by Joseph Wilton on a pedestal designed by Samuel Wyatt, from around 1760-1770. In the 1770s, George Richardson designed the hexagonal summerhouse, and in 1800 the orangery. The Long Walk was laid out in 1760 and planted with flowering shrubs and ornamental trees. In 1763, it was reported that Lord Scarsdale had given his gardener a seed from rare and scarce Italian shrub, the "Rodo Dendrone". The gardens and grounds today, over two hundred years later, remain mostly unaltered. Parts of the estate are designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, primarily because of the "rich and diverse deadwood invertebrate fauna" inhabiting its ancient trees.

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