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World Leader International Leader FangRuida--The great sun will always shine on the land of mankind (Keller 2019)

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posted by mids les alias mids6 on Monday 31st of January 2022 06:18:38 AM

Fangruida -- Modern Science and Technology Engineering and Comprehensive High-end Technology R&D, Design and Manufacturing (Introduction to Modern Science and Engineering Technology Research) 2013v2.3 2021v.2.5 Online global version, mobile version (Bick compiled in November 2021. Colombia) ♣♣♣♣Moon Comprehensive Deep Development♥♥♣Ocean City, Marine Architecture, ♣♣ Desert City, ♥♥♥ Mountain City, ♦♦♦Life Genetic Engineering, ♦♦♦♦Green Plant Nutrition Engineering●●●●●●● Smart Engineering; ♦♦♦♦♦♦ Nuclear Engineering - Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy ●●●●●●Advanced Manufacturing●●●●●●● --New World Intelligence Revolution, New Industrial Revolution, New Planetary Revolution, New Moon Revolution, New Cosmic Revolution **************************************************** **************************************** Architecture Bridge design, large-scale circuit design (chip development, etc.), mechanical and electrical product design and manufacturing, pharmaceutical product development and design, genetic engineering, aerospace technology design and manufacturing, atomic energy development and utilization, agricultural engineering, computer-aided design and manufacturing, New material research and development design, military Engineering design and manufacturing, industrial robots, aircraft and ships, missiles, spacecraft, spaceships, rockets, submarines, super-speed missiles, etc. are very important, and the foresight is highly integrated. the key. These science and technology are the powerful driving force of historical development, and also the key to whether each country can reach the peak of the world. The rapid development of modern science, all kinds of soft design emerge in an endless stream. Mathematical software, civil software, mechanical software, electrical and electronic software, chemical software, aircraft software, ship software, missile software, spacecraft software, rocket software, material software, bionic simulation software, medical software, chemical software, etc. Their appearance and wide application are of great significance to industrial modernization and intelligence, which greatly improves artificial intelligence and greatly promotes the rapid development of human society. Marine engineering, overall lunar development engineering, intelligent highly integrated engineering, high-speed heavy-duty fire Arrow transportation engineering, submarine tunnel engineering, reservoir dam engineering, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering and so on. Lunar overall engineering development planning, Mars engineering development and design, desert engineering (desert city), alpine city, marine engineering (ocean city) life genetic engineering, green plant nutrition engineering, VLSI design and manufacturing, Daxing civil engineering hydraulic engineering, road and bridge , tunnels, super tall buildings, all of them. The modern scientific revolution is guided by the revolution in physics, with the emergence of modern cosmology, molecular biology, systems science, and soft science as its important content, and is characterized by the interpenetration of natural science, social science and thinking science to form interdisciplinary subjects. scientific revolution. In the past 30 years, emerging technologies such as computers, energy, new materials, space, and biology have emerged successively, causing the third scientific and technological revolution. The third technological revolution far exceeds the previous two in terms of scale, depth and impact. Basic Features: 1. Greatly promoted the development of social productive forces — changes in the means to improve labor productivity; 2. Promoting changes in the social and economic structure and social life structure - the proportion of the tertiary industry has increased. Changes in people's daily life such as food, clothing, housing and transportation; 3. It has promoted the adjustment of the international economic structure - localities are more closely connected. 4. Planetary revolution, lunar revolution. Lunar engineering Lunar industrial intelligent city Lunar-Earth round-trip communication system We should develop the moon fast, it's a real cornering overtake. The physical presence of the moon will be of great strategic importance for thousands of years to come. There are many resources on a first-come, first-served basis, orbits, best lunar locations, electromagnetic wave bands, etc. Make full use of the local resources and environment of the moon to quickly build a city. Minimize the amount of supplies and equipment that needs to be launched to the Moon. 5. Ocean City, Ocean Building, ♣♣ Desert City, ♥♥♥ Mountain City 6. Life genetic engineering, drug research and development 7 Green Plant Nutrition Engineering 8 Smart Engineering 9 Nuclear Engineering 10 Advanced Manufacturing Engineering The rapid development of modern science and technology, with each passing day, all kinds of inventions and creations, all kinds of technological innovations are numerous. However, the most important and most relevant technical fields mainly include lunar engineering, lunar industrial intelligent city, lunar-earth round-trip communication system, Radius: 1737 km; Ocean City, Ocean Building, ♣♣ Desert City, ♥♥♥ Mountain City 6. Life genetic engineering, drug research and development 7 Green Plant Nutrition Engineering 8 Smart Engineering 9 Nuclear Engineering 10 Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and others. It is in these fields and categories that the development competition among countries is nothing more than. Of course, military, aerospace, etc. are also among them. Scientific discoveries can last for thousands of years, and technological inventions can be kept fresh for only a few decades, and they will be obsolete in a few hundred years. Such as electronic product updates, quite quickly. Life cycles are short, as are smart cars, smartphones, etc. Of course, the technological limit may also reach hundreds of years. Even scientific discoveries are not permanent. Tens of thousands of years later, people will have a new leap in understanding the universe and natural laws of natural phenomena. For example, people are on the moon and on Mars, and the human wisdom finds that the invention of wisdom is unbelievable. For us people on earth, we have become uncivilized ancient human beings. The intelligence quotient of lunar humans is dozens and hundreds of times that of our current Earth humans. The scientific discovery of that time was unimaginable. Mathematical, physical and chemical, natural, agricultural, medical, industrial, legal and commercial, literature, history, philosophy, classics, education, etc., everything will be renovated and mutated. math The science of studying quantitative relationships and spatial forms in the real world. It is produced and developed in the long-term practical activities of human beings. Originated from counting and measurement, with the development of productive forces, more and more quantitative research on natural phenomena is required; at the same time, due to the development of mathematics itself, it has a high degree of abstraction, rigorous logic and wide applicability. It is roughly divided into two categories: basic mathematics (also known as pure mathematics) and applied mathematics. The former includes branches such as mathematical logic, number theory, algebra, geometry, topology, function theory, functional analysis and differential equations; the latter includes branches such as probability theory, mathematical statistics, computational mathematics, operations research and combinatorial mathematics ■■■Basic technical sciences, mainly including civil engineering, electromechanical engineering, chemical engineering, information engineering, aerospace engineering, ocean engineering, mining engineering, medical engineering, materials engineering, computational engineering, agricultural engineering, energy engineering, lunar engineering, Mars engineering , life engineering and so on. . Computational mathematics and its application software This major trains students to master the basic theories, basic knowledge and basic methods of mathematical science, to have the ability to apply mathematical knowledge and use computers to solve practical problems, and to be able to engage in research, teaching or production in the departments of science and technology, education and economics Senior talents engaged in practical application and management in operation and management departments. This major in computer software is to cultivate all-round development of morality, intelligence, physique, beauty, labor, etc., master certain professional theoretical knowledge, basic knowledge and basic skills of computer programming and application, and be proficient in using the latest international popular software development environment and tools. , Familiar with international software development norms, have strong software development practice ability and good software engineering literacy. Modern mathematics is a edifice built from a series of abstract structures. It is based on the innate belief of human beings in the inevitability and accuracy of mathematical reasoning, and it is the concentrated expression of confidence in the capacity, origin and power of human reason. Deductive reasoning based on self-evident axioms is absolutely reliable, that is, if an axiom is true, then the conclusions deduced from it must also be true. By applying these seemingly clear, correct, and perfect logics, mathematicians The conclusions reached are clearly unquestionable and irrefutable. Naturally, mathematics is constantly developing and alienating, and eternal mathematics is also unrealistic, mainly due to the changes in the logical thinking structure of the human brain, and mathematics will continue to mutate or alienate. Mathematical logic, natural logic, image logic, hybrid compound logic. In fact, the above-mentioned understanding of the essential characteristics of mathematics is carried out from the aspects of the source, the way of existence, and the level of abstraction of mathematics, and the essential characteristics of mathematics are mainly seen from the results of mathematical research. Common general-purpose mathematical software packages include: Matlab, Mathematica and Maple, where Matlab is good at numerical calculation, while Mathematica and Maple are good at symbolic operation and formula derivation (2) Dedicated math packages include: Drawing software: MathCAD, Tecplot, IDL, Surfer, Origin, SmartDraw, DSP2000 Numerical computing class: Matcom, DataFit, S-Spline, Lindo, Lingo, O-Matrix, Scilab, Octave Numerical calculation library: linpack/lapack/BLAS/GERMS/IMSL/CXML Finite element calculation classes: ANSYS, MARC, PARSTRAN, FLUENT, FEMLAB, FlexPDE, Algor, COSMOS, ABAQUS, ADINA Mathematical statistics: GAUSS, SPSS, SAS, Splus Obviously, the result (as a deductive system of the theory) does not reflect the whole picture of mathematics, another very important aspect that constitutes the whole of mathematics is the process of mathematical research, and in general, mathematics is a dynamic process, a " The experimental process of thinking" is the abstract generalization process of mathematical truth. The logical deductive system is a natural result of this process. In the process of mathematical research, the richness of mathematical objects, the invention of mathematics by human beings, "Mathematics is a language", mathematical activities are social, it is in the historical process of the development of human civilization, human beings understand nature, adapt to It is the crystallization of a high degree of wisdom that transforms nature and improves self and society. Mathematics has a key influence on the way of thinking of human beings. It is of great significance. Mathematics, physics and chemistry, mathematics is the first priority, and it is not an exaggeration. Based on the above understanding of the essential characteristics of mathematics, people also discussed the specific characteristics of mathematics from different aspects. The more general view is that mathematics has the characteristics of abstraction, precision and extensive application, among which the most essential characteristic is abstraction. In addition, from the perspective of the process of mathematical research and the relationship between mathematics and other disciplines, mathematics also has imagery, plausibility, and quasi-experience. The "falsifiability" feature of Matlab is suitable for the engineering world, especially toolboxes, fast code, and many integrations with third-party software, such as optimization toolboxes The most obvious third party is comsol Mathematica syntax is excellent, so good that it comes with almost all programming paradigms . The understanding of the characteristics of mathematics is also characteristic of the times. For example, regarding the rigor of mathematics, there are different standards in each period of mathematics historical development, from Euclidean geometry to Lobachevsky geometry to the Hilbert axiom system. , the evaluation criteria for rigor vary widely, especially when Gödel proposed and proved the "incompleteness theorem... Later, it was found that even axiomatic, a rigorous scientific method that was once highly regarded, was flawed. Therefore, the rigor of mathematics is shown in the history of mathematics development and has a relativity. Regarding the plausibility of mathematics, ◆◆◆ Mathematics is the tool and means of physical research. Some research methods of physics have strong mathematical ideas, so the process of learning physics can also improve mathematical cognition. Mathematical logic is the study of symbolic and mathematical logic in formal logic. Mathematical logic is also called symbolic logic and theoretical logic. It is both a branch of mathematics and a branch of logic. It is the study of logic or formal logic using mathematical methods. The research object is the formal system after symbolizing the two intuitive concepts of proof and calculation. Mathematical logic is an integral part of the foundation of mathematics. Although the name has the word logic, it does not belong to the category of pure logic. Mathematical logic is the product of the development of modern Western logic. Generally speaking, it is predicate logic, which is to introduce mathematical methods into logic. Mathematical logic also mainly focuses on form, not content, but the method has changed. For example, all S are P. Mathematical logic can transform this sentence into that there is an x. If this x is S, then this x is P. Physics is a discipline that is close to exploring the origin of the world, so it has connections with many disciplines. As big as the movement of celestial bodies in geography, the spring, summer, autumn and winter of the earth, etc., as small as the gain and loss of electrons in chemical reactions in chemistry, etc.; physical calculations require mathematics, and calculus in mathematics is created by Newton to study gravity. Both formal logic and mathematical logic focus on conceptual extension and agree with the law of identity, but the analysis methods for sentences are different. Mathematics plays an important role in the development of physics, and physics also plays an important role in the development of mathematics: Explanatory language has accuracy, rigor, scientificity, plainness, thoroughness, and natural logic. The accuracy, rigor, plainness, thoroughness and scientificity of expository language are prerequisites for expository language. Representation of time, space, quantity, scope, degree, characteristics, nature, procedures, etc., are required to be accurate. The practicability of the description is very strong, and if there is a slight error, it will be missed by an inch or a thousand miles. Under the premise of accuracy, some of the language of the description is known for its plainness, and some is known for its liveliness. Due to the difference between the object of the description and the language style of the author, the language of the description is also varied and complex. In fact, the connections and differences between scientists and engineers are much more than that. In fact, the boundaries between engineers and scientists can be completely broken. Some outstanding scientists are also outstanding engineers, and some outstanding engineers often do the work of scientists. Properties of complex numbers, functions of complex variables, analytic functions, integrals of functions of complex variables, power series over complex number fields, Taylor series of analytic functions, Lorent series, singularities, residues and their calculations; string vibration equations, heat conduction Equations and potential equations, classification of second-order linear equations, traveling wave method for solving string vibration equations, two-dimensional and three-dimensional wave equations, separation of variables solution, Bessel function, Legendre polynomial and their properties, expansion of functions by characteristic functions, Fourier transform , Laplace transform, generalized function and its Fourier transform, Green function method, variational problem, Sobolev space and weak solution, finite element solution method of boundary value problem, total stiffness matrix and total load matrix, programming finite element solution method with Mathematica In addition, mathematical physics equations and special functions are also an important branch of engineering mathematics. vector algebra, vector analysis, tensor analysis Matrix Algebra, Matrix Analysis Analytical Geometry, Differential Geometry Functional Analysis, Variational Methods Ordinary Differential Equations, Partial Differential Equations optimal method Graph and network models Stochastic Mathematics (Probability, Statistics, Stochastic Processes) Computational intelligence (ANN, GA, SVM, etc.) models Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning, Data Mining The main representative of , author of "Nine Chapter Collection" 6. Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Socrates, author of "Socrates' Defence", "Utopia", "Parmenides", "The Wise Men" and other dialogues. 7. Aristotle, a student of Plato, a master of Greek philosophy, an encyclopedic philosopher, the founder of many disciplines, his representative works "Theory of Tools", "Physics", "Metaphysics", "Nicoma" Ethics", "Politics". 8. Epicurus, the ancient Greek philosopher, one of the founders of euphoria ethics. 9. Pyrrho, the ancient Greek philosopher and founder of skepticism. 10. Plotinus, the late Greek philosopher, Egyptian, the main representative of Neoplatonism, author of "Nine Chapters" 11. Marx, Hegel, Kant, etc. From the 16th century to the 19th century, many scientists were born in England. 1. Newton created a complete system of mechanics theory. 2. Faraday discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction. 3. Dalton founded the modern atomic theory. 4. Darwin created the biological evolution theory "Origin of Species"). The proportion of the world's top scientists in each country; 1. United States: 1,465 people. accounted for 47.5%. 2. United Kingdom: 346 people. accounted for .2%. 3. Germany; 177 people. accounted for 5.7%. 4. China: 175 people. accounted for 5.7%. 5, Australia: 113 people. accounted for 3.7%. 6. Canada: 97 people. accounted for 3.1%. 7. The Netherlands: 94 people. accounted for 3%. 8. France: 89 people. accounted for 2.9%. 9. Japan: 74 people. 2.4% 10. Switzerland: 71 people. 2.3% (Quoted from web resources) Newton, Franklin, Darwin, Maxwell, Hertz, Bohr, Fermi, Marie Curie, Einstein, Heisenberg, Lorenz, Ampere, Pasteur, Watson Creek, Feynman, Oppenheim Mer, David, Faraday, Roentgen, Hahn, Thomson, Rayleigh, Haber . ▲▲▲▲ Surface area: 37.93 million square kilometers, smaller than Asia and larger than Africa; Equator Circumference: 10921 km Escape velocity: 2.38 km/s; circling velocity at a height of 10 km: 1.674 km/s Surface gravitational acceleration: 1.62 m/s square, about one-sixth of the earth Equatorial surface temperature: minimum -173°C, maximum 117°C, average -53°C Surface pressure: 1 trillionth of an atmosphere during the day, 1/10 millionth of an atmosphere at night, almost an absolute vacuum The main components of the surface rock: The thickness of the lunar crust is about 50 kilometers (earth direction), and the back is about 65 kilometers. The thickness of the lunar mantle is about 1200 kilometers, solid rock, and there is a lot of iron. The partially molten outer core is 260 kilometers thick, and the solid iron inner core has a radius of 240 kilometers. There is no air on the surface of the moon, cosmic radiation is heavy, and there is damage from small meteors, so the city should be built below the surface, or a very thick dome. Other measures and methods can also be taken. The materials used to build cities on the moon should of course use all local resources, that is, the soil, rocks, etc. of the moon. If a large amount of metal materials is required, the lunar soil should also be used directly for smelting. Astronomy: It is a discipline that studies the structure and development of celestial bodies in space and the universe. Cosmology: The study of the universe, which also studies the position of human beings in the universe, and the study of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe Astronomy: The content includes the structure, properties and running laws of celestial bodies. Astronomy is an ancient science, and it has played an important role since the history of human civilization. Cosmology: The study of the origins of observable structures in the universe, from giant galaxy clusters to the solar system, falls within the field of celestial evolution. Fundamental questions to be addressed include when and how the universe began, how galaxies formed and acquired the shapes and sizes we observe, how stars were born, how planets and life evolved, and more. planetary hierarchy Including planets in planetary systems, satellites revolving around planets, and a large number of small celestial bodies, such as asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary matter. star system. 2. Stellar-level lunar soil and lunar rocks: The lunar surface is covered with a layer of lunar soil, which is rock debris, powder, breccia, impact molten glass and volcanoes formed by long-term meteorite and micrometeorite impacts and the accumulation of their sputtered materials Soil layer composed of glass. Internal structure of the moon: According to the records of natural moonquakes and large meteorites hitting the lunar surface, it is proved that the moon has a crust-like structure inside. The thickness of the front lunar crust is about 50km, and the thickness of the back is about 72km; the thickness of the lunar lithosphere can extend to a depth of at least 1000km. According to the study of the conductance profile inside the moon, the radius of the lunar metal core is about 360km; according to the measurement of the lunar magnetic field, the radius of the moon core is about 400-500km; the maximum temperature inside the moon does not exceed 1300 ℃, which does not reach the temperature of material melting. ……………………………………………………………………… ………………… If humans want to live normally on the lunar surface, they must first of all be inseparable from the essential fresh water and oxygen, and there is neither water nor empty lunar base gas on the moon. What to do about this? Scientists found that the lunar sand contains a lot of oxygen, and they proposed the idea of using the lunar sand to produce fresh water and oxygen. The idea is to first use a forklift to automatically excavate the sandy soil on the lunar surface, select the oxygen-containing iron minerals from it, and then use hydrogen to reduce the oxygen-containing iron minerals to obtain fresh water. With water, electricity is applied to electrolyze the water to obtain oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen is liquefied and stored, ready to be supplied to base residents. The hydrogen initially used as a reducing agent can be shipped from the earth, and the hydrogen obtained by electrolysis of water can be recycled after production begins. Second, for humans to live in a self-sufficient system on the moon, food supplies must also be guaranteed. Where does the food come from? In recent years, scientists have carried out a large number of biological experiments on the space station, and have cultivated more than 100 "space plants", including wheat, corn, oats, soybeans, tomatoes, radishes, cabbage, beets, etc. Moreover, it has been proved that under the conditions of zero gravity in space, the germination rate of plant seeds in lunar soil is higher, the growth rate is faster, and the flowering or heading time is earlier. Therefore, as long as a lunar agriculture and aquaculture base is established on the moon, the food source of the lunar base for people on the moon is fully guaranteed. The third is that the energy supply of the lunar base is not a problem. Because there is no wind or rain on the moon, it is clear and sunny, there is sunshine all day long, and there is no atmospheric absorption, the radiation intensity of the sun is about 1.5 times that of the earth. Therefore, it is completely possible to use solar energy for lighting, heating, heating and power generation on the moon. Of course, nuclear power plants can also be built on the moon if necessary to ensure an adequate supply of energy for the base. Without air resistance, the shape of transport equipment and cargo is only limited by the design size of the transport system itself, not by aerodynamics. , rail transportation: Rail transportation has less resistance. The rails for orbital transportation can be constructed with aluminum, iron, titanium and other elements that are very abundant on the lunar surface. The earth and stone building materials can be melted, cut into pieces, and bonded with lunar soil or lunar rock. . In the 30-50 years after 2030, local mining, smelting, energy and other industries on the moon can gradually become large-scale. Limited by the capacity of the earth to launch into space, the industrialization of the moon mainly relies on the accumulation of local materials. The main industrial categories include energy (power generation and heat collection), mining, smelting, and processing. The initial solar equipment has to be transported. This is the original bulk shipment. The power of solar panels on the moon is higher than that on Earth, The United States' Artemis project plans to send astronauts to the moon in 2024, and Russia will also send astronauts to orbit the moon in 2025. There are also many countries that have multiple probes or sample return projects before 2025, including China's Chang'e 6-7. But there are no ongoing plans for lunar mining and smelting. Even with a space station on the moon, current plans are unclear. The reasons include, of course, the need to prepare the groundwork for the successful implementation of the previous project, improve the launch and recovery technology, and more experience on the lunar surface. Within 50-100 years, the development of the moon will become an aerospace hotspot. In fact, at this stage, only the moon is likely to actually enter the development and immigration of human beings on Earth, and Mars is waiting for later. The moon is the first planet that human beings can conquer and set foot on. If human beings can't conquer even him, how can we conquer Mars? ▼▼▼▼▼ It has made outstanding achievements in the construction of ecological protection system in desert areas, restoration and reconstruction of degraded ecosystems, water conservancy engineering construction, transportation engineering construction, oil and gas exploration and development, land development and oasis construction, water-saving irrigation engineering, etc., which convincingly proves that : Human beings not only have the power to overcome the harm of desertification, but also have the power to make the desert benefit mankind The ocean is the cradle of life and a treasure trove of resources, covering 71% of the earth's total surface and accounting for 97% of the earth's total water. With the continuous growth of the world population, the development of marine resources has become a strategic measure for human survival and development. In modern marine development activities, the development of marine oil and natural gas, marine transportation, marine fishing and sea salt production are huge in scale and output value. They are mature industries and are undergoing technological transformation and further expansion of production; marine aquaculture, seawater desalination, seawater Extraction of bromine and magnesium, tidal power generation, offshore factories, and undersea tunnels are developing rapidly; deep-sea mining, wave power generation, thermoelectric power generation, seawater uranium extraction, and offshore cities are being studied and tested for the development of seabed mineral resources, and marine engineering is very important. It is the most important source of life for all mankind. The protection and development of the ocean includes various measures, and the development of ocean cities is an important aspect of them. To develop a marine city is to build a city on the sea or under the sea, rather than developing a city near the sea as is usually thought. Nowadays, many coastal cities are very prosperous, and it is a natural idea and choice to continuously expand the area of coastal cities. However, under the background of global warming, the glaciers in the Arctic and Antarctic are melting, and the sea level is rising year by year. Coastal cities are not only facing submersion. Dangerous, and also facing the invasion of powerful typhoon and waves, simple expansion by reclamation is not a long-term solution. It can further expand the living space of human beings and develop and utilize the vast marine resources. In 2002, an American company envisioned building a sea city that could accommodate tens of thousands of people, namely the super cruise ship "Freedom". The design of the "Freedom" was 1372 m in length, 229 m in width and 107 m in height, on the main deck. The building above is 25 stories high. The design goal of the "Freedom" is to go to the major oceans in the world to cruise, which is the embodiment of people's longing for the ocean. Marine engineering structural problems. Structural problems are the first problems to be solved by ocean cities. Whether it is a building on the water or underwater, how to resist the impact of storms, waves or huge water pressure, and ensure the stability, safety and reliability of the structure will become the first problem. For the durability of the project, it is necessary to select materials that are resistant to seawater corrosion, such as magnesium alloys or synthetic resin concrete. In order to live comfortably, the overall structure should not have too much shaking. Using rigid, flexible, durable, corrosion-resistant and high-strength composite materials to build a large-area semi-submersible platform, which is wind-resistant, wave-resistant, and earthquake-resistant. The new habitat, the platform is rigid-flexible structure and connection, 1000m-5000m, ground anchor and drop anchor, or sit on the bottom or semi-submersible, generally 50-100m in shallow sea, anti-earthquake, tsunami, storm and lightning protection ,Safe and reliable. To prevent fluttering and shaking, rigid, flexible, hard and soft measures are adopted. The marine city building materials are lightweight, durable, fire-resistant and corrosion-resistant, and the promenade and plank roads are readily available. The continental shelf is the most developed area of seabed sedimentation, and its sedimentary types and characteristics are restricted by environmental factors. Since the waters of the continental shelf are in a shallow sea environment, the factors affecting the deposition of the continental shelf are: 1. Sea level change; 2. Provenance supply; 3. Hydrodynamic conditions; 3. Climate and its fluctuations; 5. Detrital particle size; 6 7. Chemical factors; 8. Continental shelf topography; 9. Sea area openness; 10. Geological characteristics of surrounding land areas; 11. Tectonic background. 12. Earth evolution, etc. Ocean engineering has great potential. living environment problems. How to provide an environment suitable for human survival, such as air, food, light, etc., is also an issue that needs to be carefully considered. Appropriate air is easy to satisfy for floating cities, but precise control is required for underwater cities. In order to maintain an air environment with a composition similar to that of the earth's atmosphere, a sufficiently robust air control system must be set up to maintain air pressure, temperature, humidity, etc., and must be carefully considered from the very beginning of the design. Sufficient electrical energy is the main form of energy. In addition to ensuring various activities and other needs of residents, it is also a necessary supporting condition for maintaining the living environment, such as air circulation and seawater desalination. In order to protect the ecological environment of the ocean, consideration should be given to using renewable and clean energy as much as possible. The turbulent waves of the ocean, the rising and falling tides, the huge ocean currents and the temperature difference between the upper and lower layers of the sea contain huge energy, so photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, wave power generation, tidal power generation, ocean current power generation, ocean temperature difference power generation and other renewable energy Energy will be the main force of energy supply. If there is a shortage, it can be considered to supplement part of nuclear power generation. For floating cities, the development area is large, so photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and wave power generation can be the main force. For underwater cities, the power source is relatively scarce, and thermoelectric power generation, nuclear power can be considered, and some marine resources such as oil and natural gas can also be used. , combustible ice, etc. garbage disposal issues. How to recycle garbage, avoid environmental pollution, establish a recyclable economy, and build a reasonable and feasible sustainable development model will be the key control factors for building a marine city. For example, in the concept of "Future City in the Maritime Environment", the garbage generated in the city is classified and processed to achieve partial reuse of resources. One is the fully recyclable garbage such as domestic garbage, sewage and carbon dioxide. First, the domestic sewage is treated and provided to plants for irrigation, and secondly, the domestic garbage is converted into fertilizer for plant factories through decomposition technology; , In addition to providing grain and meat products to residents, the residual processed waste will be further processed and provided to aquaculture in shallow sea areas as bait. Another type of waste that can be converted into energy, such as waste paper scraps, plastics, building materials, etc., is partially converted into fertilizers that can be used in agriculture, animal husbandry, and fisheries through special waste treatment plants, and part is used for the production of renewable materials and fuels . However, a small amount of garbage with great harm and pollution may still need to be transferred to land for centralized treatment or destruction to be harmless and pollution-free. With the improvement of technology and strict environmental protection measures, this part of garbage will become less and less. . Due to the complexity of the environment and the independence of effective operation, marine buildings in the future development of marine cities must meet the long-term settlement requirements of human beings. In addition to the above obvious problems, there are many other problems that need to be re-examined and carefully designed. Modern engineering is a huge challenge. Therefore, building a marine city is a multi-disciplinary, multi-professional, multi-field, and all-round integration system. There are many difficulties to overcome. The proposed scheme, new design and new concept, organically integrates various technologies under the concept of environmental protection, as a huge system. Only by considering the project can a more economical and feasible technical route be obtained, and the planning and realization of the ocean city can be continuously promoted. desert city, mountains Set up drainage and seepage guide on the downstream backwater surface to discharge seepage water in time. In addition to the homogeneous earth dam, the dam body is mainly intercepted by the core wall, and the core wall is mainly composed of clay core wall, asphalt core wall, concrete core wall or other materials. The grouting method is the most widely used method for dam foundation seepage interception, and dam foundation grouting mainly selects different grouting methods according to the different geological conditions of the dam foundation. For large reservoirs, the design of the dam is very strict. When the dam foundation is rock and there are cracks, consolidation grouting should be used; when the dam foundation is rock or gravel foundation, if there is a leakage channel, curtain grouting should be used; when the dam foundation is Measures such as high-spray grouting shall be adopted for silty soil, silty clay stratum, silt, sand, gravel, gravel and other loose permeable foundations or filling bodies. structural design When designing a reservoir dam structure, the most basic requirement is to ensure the safety and stability of the structure. Therefore, it is necessary to extensively collect and organize relevant structural information during design to ensure the quality level of engineering design and improve the safety and stability of the reservoir dam structure. At the same time, in the structural design of dams, there are problems of uneven settlement caused by poor dam foundation and water conveyance tunnel foundation, and the compactness and bearing capacity do not meet the specifications. Uneven settlement leads to cracks in the dam body, cracks in the dam crest road surface, and rupture and damage of the culvert pipe of the water conveyance tunnel. Structural safety is paramount. Metal Structure Equipment In the design of reservoir dams, it is necessary to do a good job in the preliminary field investigation. By mastering accurate hydrogeological data, we can learn about the natural conditions of the construction site in detail, and choose metal structure equipment that is suitable for the actual local conditions. Control the quality of the equipment, and avoid rust and corrosion during the actual application of the equipment, so as to improve the quality of reservoir dam construction and better play the important role of reservoir dams. Redundant design and special accident safety design Spaceships, ships, dams, ultra-high buildings, large-section tunnels, extra-large bridges, atomic energy reactors, hazardous chemicals, earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, safety protection, prediction, forecast and early warning system, extreme climate forecast system, Major infectious disease and plague prediction and early warning systems, program design of important software, R&D and design of important intelligent hardware, etc., are particularly important and require the full attention of scientists and engineers. On these important issues, we must redouble our efforts and intensify our efforts. world dam failure Dam collapse in Marpasse, France, 1959 The failure of the Malpasset dam is a vicious accident in the history of arch dam construction in the world, and it is more serious than the four previous dam accidents in the United States recorded in the records of modern dam accidents in the 1920s and 1930s. This dam is located on the Leyland River in the Var province in southern France. The dam was only built for water supply and irrigation. It was designed by André Coyne, a famous French civil engineer at the time. He led the construction of 70 dams in 14 countries in his lifetime. dam. The dam is about 66 meters high and 223 meters wide at the crest. Construction started in 1952 and completed in 1954, using reinforced concrete. Due to the turbulent political situation in France at that time, it was put into operation as late as the end of 1958. In December 1959, the local area had continued torrential rain, and at noon on December 2, the reservoir reached its highest water level. Reservoir engineer André Ferro immediately asked to open the gates to discharge the flood, but the leaders were slow to approve. Until 6 pm that day, after the leaders approved the opening of the gate, the flood discharge speed was too slow, and the water level dropped by only a few centimeters in 3 hours, which was too late. At 9:00 p.m. that night, the Marbasi Dam suddenly collapsed. With a loud noise, a huge wave about 40 meters high carrying reinforced concrete fragments rushed out of the dam breach at a high speed of 70 kilometers per hour. The resulting huge air shock wave turned the small town of Fragers, about 10 kilometers downstream of the dam, into ruins in more than half an hour, and nearly all nearby buildings, roads, railways, power supply and water supply lines were washed away. into the sea more than ten kilometers away. According to official statistics, 423 people, including more than 100 children, were directly killed in the accident, many were missing, and many more were injured. "World's Best" Vaião Dam Landslide, Italy, 1963 Vajont Dam is located in the scenic Alps, less than 100 kilometers from the famous Venice. Italy entered a period of rapid development after the Second World War. The industrial development of the northern cities has an increasing demand for electricity. The Vaian Canyon dam construction has unique geographical conditions. As early as before World War II, the government and engineers have proposed to build power generation and reservoir functions. The dam's vision and engineering scheme. The design structure of the concrete double-curvature arch dam, which was finally used in the world's tallest dam at that time, had such excellent stress conditions that even after the disaster caused by the collapse of the reservoir, the dam remained standing. However, the mountains on both sides of the dam could not bear the weight of building dams and reservoirs. Image source: The International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) is the most authoritative international non-governmental academic organization recognized in the field of international dam engineering technology. It was established in 1928. The Dam Committee adopts a national membership mechanism. Currently, there are 104 national members, covering the countries where more than 95% of the world's reservoir dams are located. Its purpose is to promote technological progress in the planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of reservoir dams and water conservancy and hydropower projects through the exchange of mutual information, including research on technical, economic, financial, environmental and social impact issues. Activities include technical exchanges between national committees, organizing conferences, annual meetings, executive meetings, sub-regional meetings and other meetings, organizing cooperative research and experiments, publishing collections of papers, technical bulletins, dam statistics and other documents. , GETTY IMAGES The dam was built in 1957 by a company that monopolized private power in northern Italy. Later, the dam engineering company changed the original design. The height of the dam was increased from 230 meters to 262 meters, and the storage capacity was also increased to three times the original design. As the storage of the reservoir increased, the geological structure around the dam became unstable. At the end of 1962, the Italian national electric company bought the reservoir, in order to accept it as soon as possible and accelerate the water storage. From September 28, 1963, heavy rains continued to fall in the Vaian area. The speed of the landslide was increasing, and people nearby began to hear strange noises in the Vaian Valley. Authorities decided to lower the reservoir level, too late. On the night of October 9, 1963, a 260-million-cubic-meter landslide around the reservoir filled half of the reservoir within 45 seconds. The water that burst out instantly formed a 250-meter-high wave and an air shock wave like an atomic bomb explosion. It flooded nearby towns and villages, killing nearly 2,000 people. At that time, there were more than 60 technical and management personnel in the management building and office on the bank of the reservoir. Except for one person who survived, all the others died. despite the loss of water storage or generator energy. The intact dam has remained in place and has become a local tourist attraction. In 2008, when UNESCO launched the "International Year of the Earth", it listed the tragedy of the Vaian dam as one of the human engineering tragedies "due to the errors of engineers and geologists". In August 1975, a super typhoon brought Henan a torrential rain that broke the record of the highest rainfall in China and the world at that time, causing a major flood in the upper reaches of the Huai River, and a small reservoir began to collapse on August 6. In the early morning of August 8, two large reservoirs and nearly 60 small and medium-sized reservoirs collapsed one after another in just a few hours. Like a landslide, more than 600 million cubic meters of floodwater poured down, dozens of meters high and wide. The flood peak of about 12 kilometers inundated 29 counties and cities in Henan and Anhui provinces within a few hours. The book "The Great Flood in Chinese History" published in 1999 stated that 11 million people in Henan Province were affected and suffered heavy casualties. 17 million mu of farmland was flooded, 5.96 million houses collapsed, 302,300 farm animals and 720,000 pigs were washed away. , the Beijing-Guangzhou line running through the north and south of China was washed away 102 kilometers, interrupted for 18 days, affecting transportation for 48 days, known as the "75.8" flood. • ------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- Civil engineering, roads and bridges, tunnels, dams, super high buildings, etc. 1. Engineering Feasibility Study (Gong Ke) - preliminary planning, key technology research, feasibility study from economic, technological and social development; 2. Preliminary design - select recommended and optimal plans from different design plans; mainly solve overall planning problems, including bridge location selection, bridge type, sub-holes, longitudinal and cross-sectional layout, main dimensions of the structure, project budget estimates, main The amount of materials; the preliminary design estimate is the basis for controlling the investment of the construction project and compiling the construction budget; 3. Construction drawings - technical documents that further detail and specify the construction principles, technical plans, technical decisions, and total investment approved by the preliminary design; detailed analysis and calculation of each component of the bridge, drawing of construction drawings, and preparation of construction methods must be carried out. , construction material schedule and budget; Bridge Profile Design Including the total span of the bridge, sub-holes, bridge deck elevation, route, road longitudinal slope, foundation embedding depth and the method used; 1. The total span of the bridge - comprehensive consideration according to hydrological data, river bed erosion, foundation form, channel arrangement and cost; 2. The principle of split holes is that the total cost of the upper and lower structures is the most economical; comprehensively consider the influence of factors such as span, number of holes, structural system, combat readiness, etc.; three-span continuous beam 1: 0.8, five-span continuous beam 1: 0.9: 0.65 ; 3. Determination of bridge deck elevation - first meet the navigation requirements (navigation clearance), determined by the navigation department and determined by the design flood level; the bottom surface of the bearing is 25 cm higher than the design flood, and the bottom surface of the vault is 1 meter higher; the specific analysis of the flyover bridge ; The longitudinal slope of the bridge is not more than 4%, and the city is not more than 3%; the longitudinal slope of the approach bridge is not more than 5%, and vertical curves must be set at the changes; • Bridge cross-section design . Depends on the bridge deck width, structure type, cross-sectional arrangement; . Traffic lanes (7, 9) + sidewalks (1+NX0.5) + bicycle lanes (n*1) . Sidewalks and seat belts should be at least 20~25cm higher than the road surface, generally greater than 30cm .The cross slope of the bridge deck is 1.5%~3%, which is conducive to drainage; . Railings, guardrails, lamp post locations, bridge pipelines, etc. • Bridge layout . The alignment of the bridge should be as perpendicular to the river and the route under the bridge as possible to avoid oblique crossing; . When the oblique crossing is restricted, the oblique crossing angle is usually not more than 15 degrees, and it is not more than 5 degrees on navigable rivers; when the oblique crossing angle is large, special structural analysis and calculation shall be made; . The alignment between the alignment and the bridgehead approach road is smooth and conforms to the specifications; • 1. On the premise of meeting the functional requirements, the best structural type should be selected - Pure, refreshing and stable. Quality is unified in beauty, and beauty is subordinate to quality. • 2. Beauty is mainly manifested in the harmony and good proportion of structure selection, and has a sense of order and rhythm. Too much repetition can lead to monotony. • 3. Pay attention to coordination with the environment. The choice of materials, the texture of the surface, and the use of special colors play an important role. Model checking helps with real-feeling judgment and examines shadow effects. • 4. A beautiful bridge should have a positive impact on people with its personality. Beauty and ethics are inherently interlinked. A beautiful environment will directly shape people's sentiments. The beauty of nature and the beauty of man-made environment are necessary for people's physical and mental health. • The determination of bridge structural form depends on in-depth comprehensive analysis and comparison of bridge technology, economy, and bridge construction conditions; • First determine the sub-holes according to the requirements of terrain, geology, navigation, etc., and draw up the bridge structure diagrams that may be designed; (usually 2~4) • Next, formulate the technical and economic indicators of each selected bridge structure form, including: main material consumption, total investment, construction period, operating conditions, maintenance costs, technical requirements for construction technology (whether there are difficult projects, etc.), special materials, etc.; and draw up the bridge structure the size of the main components; • Technical and economic comparison and optimal plan; comprehensively compare various indicators, determine the optimal plan based on the principles of applicability, economy and aesthetics, or recommend the first plan according to other objective conditions and special requirements. • Bridge codes are not necessarily the same across the world , it needs to be used according to the actual situation, and cannot be copied and used. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge in 1907 On August 29, 1907, a section of a newly built bridge in Quebec, Canada collapsed, falling into the St. Lawrence River. The collapse threw dozens of bridge builders and mechanics into the water and killed at least 80 people. The disaster happened just as workers were about to leave work that day, when a mile and a half or so of the bridge deck collapsed, causing a chain reaction of broken bridges and cables. A report later blamed the accident on the bridge's engineers. When the bridge was rebuilt in 1916, its structure collapsed again when it was hoisted back into place, killing 13 workers. • 1-3-1 Bridge Load Classification According to the probability of load occurrence: Primary loads, secondary loads and special loads Highway design specification division: Permanent load, variable load, accidental load • During the service life of the bridge, the position, size, and direction of the load do not change with time or change very little and can be ignored. • Main Type Self-weight of main girder structure, deck pavement and ancillary facilities; Earth weight, earth pressure, internal and external prestressing, concrete Soil shrinkage, creep effect, foundation displacement effect, etc.; • Basic variable load (live load) ·Use loads of bridges: vehicles, people, and loads indirectly caused by vehicles · Cars, trailers, crawler vehicles, crowds (350) and special vehicles, consider centrifugal force (centrifugal coefficient V2/127R) and impact force (impact coefficient) for curved bridges • Other variables include: Vehicle braking force (related to the bearing, driving direction, 1.2 meters), bearing frictional resistance, temperature, wind load, water pressure, etc. ·Wind - small and medium bridges are calculated according to static wind pressure, and bridges are calculated according to dynamic force ·Automobile braking force - used when calculating bearings and piers ·Temperature influence—sunshine and annual temperature difference ·Support friction resistance, flowing water pressure and ice pressure - used when calculating bridge piers •Different countries have different norms, which are scientific and reasonable according to local conditions. Common problems in road and bridge design security issues road and bridge engineering★★★★★ -------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- --- • Tunnel engineering design Principles for selecting the location of tunnel engineering design a. The location of the tunnel should be selected in a stable stratum, and try to avoid crossing the extremely complex engineering geology and hydrogeology and serious bad geological areas; when it must be passed, there should be practical and reliable engineering measures. b. For long and extra-long tunnels and large-section tunnels crossing the watershed, the route direction and plane position shall be determined on the basis of geological surveying and comprehensive geological exploration of



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