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"Common Pill Woodlouse" "Armadillidium vulgare" IR IMG_20211109_134414

(PID:51666806091) Source
posted by John Pitts alias Pitzy's Pyx, keep snapping away!. on Tuesday 9th of November 2021 01:59:41 PM

Armadillidium vulgare pillbug By Asa Holland Geographic Range Habitat Physical Description Development Reproduction Lifespan/Longevity Behavior Communication and Perception Food Habits Predation Ecosystem Roles Economic Importance for Humans: Positive Economic Importance for Humans: Negative Conservation Status Other Comments Contributors References Ge-o-graphic Range Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare, the com-mon pill-bug, is na-tive to the edge of the Mediter-ranean and has been in-tro-duced to nearly all world-wide ter-res-trial land-masses, with par-tic-u-larly dense pop-u-la-tions in tem-per-ate cli-mates. There are sig-nif-i-cant pop-u-la-tions through-out the United States, and it is also found in Mada-gas-car, Aus-tralia, South Africa, and India, among many other areas. Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare has also been ex-ten-sively stud-ied and col-lected in Japan, France, Canada, cen-tral Bo-hemia, the Czech Re-pub-lic, and shore-lines of west-ern Ro-ma-nia. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Ferenţi, et al., 2013; Gi-raud, et al., 2013; Kara-sawa, et al., 2012; Moriyama and Migita, 2004; Saska, 2008; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Biogeographic Regionsnearctic introduced palearctic native oriental introduced ethiopian introduced neotropical introduced australian introduced Other Geographic Termscosmopolitan Habi-tat Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare is abun-dant and ac-tive as both a soil and sur-face dweller. Pop-u-la-tions thrive in moist cli-mates and damp soils. Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare can be found in lo-ca-tions with a stan-dard Mediter-ranean cli-mate or in tem-per-ate agroe-cosys-tems. Data has been com-piled that in-di-cates that A. vul-gare pop-u-la-tions range through-out the tem-per-ate, sub-trop-i-cal, and sub-arc-tic cli-mates of Japan. Hu-mid-ity lev-els rang-ing from 50 to 60% are ac-cept-able con-di-tions to pre-vent des-ic-ca-tion. Op-ti-mal habi-tats have abun-dant de-com-pos-ing or-ganic mat-ter, mod-er-ate tem-per-a-tures, low il-lu-mi-na-tion, and mod-er-ate to high hu-mid-ity. While other ter-res-trial isopods pop-u-late ther-mal habi-tats such as the soil near heated swim-ming pools or shore-lines dur-ing colder win-ter months, A. vul-gare prefers drier areas fur-ther from water. Lo-ca-tions where the soil en-tirely freezes over do not en-cour-age pop-u-la-tion growth. (Dias, et al., 2012; Ferenţi, et al., 2013; Kara-sawa, et al., 2012; Moriyama and Migita, 2004; Robin-son, et al., 2011; Saska, 2008; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Com-mon pill-bugs can be found under pieces of nat-ural de-bris such as stones or logs in forests, and in the soil of fields, gar-dens, or hedgerows. Ex-posed large-par-ti-cle soil (as found in agri-cul-tural cul-ti-va-tion sites or green-houses) is more de-sir-able than finer soils, as the for-mer al-lows for in-creased water re-ten-tion, eas-ier bur-row-ing, and in-creased rel-a-tive hu-mid-ity. Human do-mes-tic waste such as card-board or old rags pro-vide suit-able habi-tats as well. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Kara-sawa, et al., 2012; Robin-son, et al., 2011; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Pop-u-la-tions have been main-tained suc-cess-fully under sta-ble lab-o-ra-tory con-di-tions such as daily flu-o-res-cent il-lu-mi-na-tion ex-po-sure rang-ing from six to ten hours a day, tem-per-a-tures be-tween 20 to 25°C, and com-bi-na-tions of damp soil and de-cid-u-ous leaf lit-ter with 100% hu-mid-ity. (Beauché and Richard, 2013; Robin-son, et al., 2011; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Habitat Regionstemperate tropical terrestrial Terrestrial Biomesdesert or dune savanna or grassland chaparral forest Other Habitat Featuresurban suburban agricultural Range depth .25 (high) m 0.82 (high) ft Phys-i-cal De-scrip-tion Like all isopods, Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare is oval-shaped and mod-er-ately flat-tened along its dor-sal plane. Isopods have a cephalic shield (in-com-pletely fused cara-pace) that is less durable than the fully fused cara-pace of other crus-taceans. They have three tag-mata: the head, which bears their cephalon (fused max-il-lipeds), the pereon (tho-rax), and the pleon (ab-domen). Iso-pod heads have un-stalked eyes, un-like the com-pound eyes of most crus-taceans, as well as one pair of an-ten-nae that bear setae. A sec-ondary pair of smaller an-ten-nae is pre-sent but ves-ti-gial and serves no known bi-o-log-i-cal pur-pose. The pereon is di-vided into seven somites (di-vi-sions), each of which has a pair of pere-opods (short walk-ing legs) pro-trud-ing from it. The sec-ond through fifth ven-tral somite plates form the fe-male's mar-supium. Isopods pri-mar-ily ac-quire oxy-gen via a thick-ened cu-ti-cle com-posed of a fi-brous ma-trix of cal-cium car-bon-ate that al-lows for both gas dif-fu-sion and water con-ser-va-tion. The pleon sup-ports two pairs of oval-shaped res-pi-ra-tory struc-tures called pleopods. They are lo-cated on the first two ven-tral seg-ments of the pleon, and are hy-poth-e-sized to have once been a pair of ap-pendages. The pleopods trap air with sponge-like struc-tures called pseudo-tra-cheae, giv-ing them a white ap-pear-ance. This is not to be con-fused with the white dor-sal cal-cium car-bon-ate plates formed dur-ing the pre-ecd-y-sis stage of molt-ing. The pleon also sup-ports sev-eral tail pro-jec-tions, which trans-port water to the mouth of the iso-pod. Like most other crus-taceans, isopods have flat-tened plate-like uropods (flat-tened ap-pendages used for move-ment) and a tel-son (rigid struc-ture used for back-wards thrust) which are fused to form a pos-te-rior tail fan. Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare can be dis-tin-guished from other ter-res-trial isopods by ob-serv-ing both clearly vis-i-ble an-ten-nae that pro-trude dur-ing con-glo-ba-tion and rel-a-tively short pere-opods that can-not be seen from their dor-sal sur-face. Com-pared to other species within the same genus, A. vul-gare has a thicker cu-ti-cle and denser en-dothe-lium be-tween the res-pi-ra-tory cav-ity and lung flu-ids. Al-though not vis-i-ble ex-ter-nally, these mor-pho-log-i-cal adap-ta-tions may have con-tributed to its in-creased re-sis-tance to des-ic-ca-tion, and thereby its cos-mopoli-tan dis-tri-b-u-tion. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Bous-field and Con-lan, 2013; Csonka, et al., 2013; Hild, et al., 2008) Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare has an oval body shape ap-prox-i-mately twice as long as it is wide. Two- to three-month-old A. vul-gare ju-ve-niles are gen-er-ally be-tween 5 to 7 mm in length. Typ-i-cal young adults are 10 mm long and 5 mm wide. Sex-u-ally ma-ture in-di-vid-u-als can gen-er-ally be dis-tin-guished by hav-ing a length greater than 0.7 mm. Males and fe-males have ap-prox-i-mately equiv-a-lent mass. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Moriyama, 2004; Robin-son, et al., 2011) Pig-men-ta-tion in Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare is de-ter-mined by two dis-tinct pig-ments in the in-tegu-ment (outer shell): om-mochrome pig-ment that pro-duces dark body col-oration, and pteri-dine pig-ments that pro-duce dis-tinct col-ored spots in the dor-sal re-gion. The pres-ence of dense pteri-dine pig-ments usu-ally re-sults in slightly yel-low-ish spots, al-though brown or red col-oration also oc-curs. Most in-di-vid-u-als have a dull, dark gray uni-ver-sal body color due to the dis-tri-b-u-tion of these pig-ments but vari-ants occur. In-di-vid-u-als in-fected with IIV-31 may in-stead be light blue, pur-ple, or vi-o-let. Some pop-u-la-tions of A. vul-gare have dras-ti-cally re-duced and less dense om-mochrome pig-ment such that they do not dis-play the darker col-oration at all. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Hasegawai, et al., 1999; Kara-sawa, et al., 2012; Moriyama, 2004) Other Physical Featuresectothermic heterothermic bilateral symmetry Sexual Dimorphismsexes alike Range mass 0.060 to 0.116 g 0.00 to 0.00 oz Range length 0.7 to 18 mm 0.03 to 0.71 in Average length 10 mm 0.39 in De-vel-op-ment The Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare life cycle in-volves an egg stage, a ju-ve-nile stage termed a manca, and fi-nally a re-pro-duc-tive adult stage. There is no nau-plius stage, which most crus-taceans have. In-stead, em-bryos hatch as im-ma-turely de-vel-oped adults. (Beauché and Richard, 2013; Bous-field and Con-lan, 2013) Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare eggs are thin-walled and pos-sess a yolk. After re-lease from the oviduct, they are stored in the mar-supium, a fluid-filled pouch pre-sent in re-pro-duc-ing fe-males. Eggs are en-closed in both an inner vitelline mem-brane (com-posed of pro-tein fibers and species-spe-cific sperm re-cep-tors) and an outer chorion. The chorion is shed as a pro-tein en-ve-lope when the egg's em-bryo has con-sumed half the orig-i-nal yolk. Within the em-bryo is a poorly un-der-stood 'dor-sal organ' sen-sory struc-ture com-mon to many crus-taceans. This struc-ture is hy-poth-e-sized to reg-u-late ion and acid ex-change for the de-vel-op-ing em-bryo. Egg size in-creases with the size of the mother. When the yolk is fully con-sumed, the dor-sal organ at-ro-phies and the em-bryo un-der-goes blas-toki-ne-sis. After one to two days, the vitelline mem-brane is shed and the manca hatches. Only half of the eggs pro-duced re-sult in fully de-vel-oped man-cas. After three to four days, the man-cas crawl out of the mar-supium. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) The thick-ened cu-ti-cle of Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare con-sists of an ex-o-cu-ti-cle con-tain-ing rows of crys-tal-lized cal-cite and an en-do-cu-ti-cle made up of amor-phous cal-cium car-bon-ate. The cu-ti-cle must be pe-ri-od-i-cally shed to allow for con-tin-ued growth. The molt-ing cycle of males and non-re-pro-duc-ing fe-males, called the nor-mal in-ter-molt, takes about 29 days. It be-gins with a 2 day pe-riod fol-low-ing the last molt, where the new, soft cu-ti-cle cali-ci-fies. The pill-bug can-not move or eat, and is vul-ner-a-ble to pre-da-tion and dessi-ca-tion. For 12 to 14 days, the cal-cium builds up in the ex-oskele-ton. Then a 10 to 12 day pre-molt, where the new molt cycle be-gins. The he-molymph re-ab-sorbs cal-cium from the old ex-oskele-ton, and the new ex-oskele-ton forms while the old ex-oskele-ton sep-a-rates from the epi-der-mis. The re-main-ing part of the cycle is a 2 to 4 day ecd-y-sis of in-ter-molt, where the split-ting of the old ex-oskele-ton oc-curs and is shed from the body. (Beauché and Richard, 2013; Bous-field, et al., 2013; Hild, et al., 2008; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare fe-males enter a sep-a-rate molt-ing cycle dur-ing their re-pro-duc-tive phase. This cycle is called the prepar-tur-ial in-ter-molt, with the ac-tual process of ecd-y-sis at the end of the cycle called the par-tur-ial molt. Dur-ing par-tur-ial molts, fe-males en-tirely re-press food con-sump-tion. The roughly 43 day prepar-tur-ial in-ter-molt be-gins the same as the nor-mal in-ter-molt, with a two day pe-riod fol-low-ing the pre-vi-ous molt. For 12 to 14 days, the cal-cium builds up as it does in the nor-mal in-ter-molt, and fe-males for-age more dur-ing this time. The mar-supium also dif-fer-en-ti-ates dur-ing this time, and ovar-ian mat-u-ra-tion oc-curs. For 15 days, the new molt cycle be-gins, same as the nor-mal in-ter-molt. For about 10 days after this, the fe-male's sex-ual re-cep-tiv-ity is at its high-est. Fi-nally, there are 2 to 4 days of ecd-y-sis. (Beauché and Richard, 2013; Bous-field, et al., 2013; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010) Re-pro-duc-tion Mat-ing Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare pairs can po-ten-tially form up to a few days be-fore the fe-male's re-cep-tive pe-riod be-gins. How-ever, males are more at-tracted to fe-males with promi-nent cal-cium plates, which cor-re-spond to their higher re-pro-duc-tive re-cep-tiv-ity pe-riod. Ter-res-trial isopods as a whole gen-er-ally mate in spring. Warmer con-di-tions usu-ally lead to ear-lier re-pro-duc-tion. In areas with mild win-ters, par-tic-u-larly Mediter-ranean cli-mates, they can re-main sex-u-ally ac-tive through-out the year. A. vul-gare fe-males can store sperm from mul-ti-ple males, who leave the fe-male after mat-ing and are free to mate again. Thus, there are no truly per-ma-nent mat-ing pairs, mak-ing this species polyg-y-nan-drous. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Ferenţi, et al., 2013) Mat-ing is brief, com-pleted within a few sec-onds, and syn-chro-nized with the be-gin-ning of the fe-male's par-tur-ial molt-ing cycle. Mat-ing oc-curs as Ar-madil-lid-ium vul-gare males climb onto the backs of fe-males, bend their pleon down-wards, and use their first pair of pleopods to trans-fer sperm to the fe-male's ven-tral gono-pores. Within the oviduct, the sperm are im-mo-bi-lized within an epi-cu-tic-u-lar en-ve-lope bun-dle. Bun-dles from each mat-ing in-ci-dent form rings within the oviduct, so that mus-cle cells around the oviduct can pres-sur-ize the bun-dles to re-lease the im-mo-bi-lized sper-ma-to-zoa onto oocytes that pass through these rings dur-ing ovipo-si-tion. Sperm from one mat-ing in-ci-dent can be stored in this man-ner for an en-tire year for use in sub-se-quent broods, with older sperm bun-dles tak-ing prece-dence over more re-cent ge-netic ma-te-r-ial when broods are laid. After mat-ing, fe-male in-di-vid-u-als ex-hibit a 're-frac-tory pe-riod' dur-ing which fur-ther male mat-ing at-tempts are re-jected. ("Isopoda (Pill-bugs, Slaters, and Woodlice)", 2003; Beauché and Richard, 2013; Bous-field and Con-lan, 2013; Wright and O'Don-nell, 2010; Ziegler and Suzuki, 2011) Mating Systempolygynandrous (promiscuous)



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