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Q44.44 - Target area for the Quadra44.44-project

(PID:11931228294) Source
posted by Marten Kuilman alias quadralectics on Monday 13th of January 2014 04:08:25 PM

Source: Map 51 in The Times - Atlas of the World - Concise Edition. Times Books (London, 1997). East of Pyatigorsk is the geographical location 44N 44E, which again is close to the location of the intended 'Quadralectic Monument' at 44.44'.44'' N and 44.44'.44" E --- Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 (2010 Census); 140,559 (2002 Census); 129,499 (1989 Census). The name Pyatigorsk is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" (five mountains) and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means five mountains in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780, and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. Pyatigorsk is one of the oldest spa resorts in Russia. The health resort provides unique medical resources, and its underground wealth supplies 50 different mineral springs, medical mud taken from Lake Tambukan located 10 km (6 mi) from Pyatigorsk, and the mild climate of the area. It is one of 116 historical towns of the Russian Federation. Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. The Zionist activist Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk. The Circassian or Adyghe name is Beishto. The writings of the 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta included the earliest known mention of the mineral springs. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725) fostered the earliest scientific study of them, but the information collected on his expedition has not survived. Interest revived at the end of the 18th century with the foundation of the first Russian settlement — Konstantinogorskaya fortress, erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780. The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. Many settlements developed near the springs: first Goryachevodsk (now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, and Zheleznovodsk. During World War II the German Wehrmacht temporarily occupied Pyatigorsk. The Einsatzkommando 12 of Einsatzgruppe D had its headquarters in Pyatigorsk in 1942. The German occupation resulted in the killing of many Jewish inhabitants of the region* (see below). The city is situated on a small plateau, 512 meters (1,680 ft) above sea level, at the foot of Beshtau, Mashuk, and three other outliers of the Caucasus Mountains, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south. The climate of Pyatigorsk falls within humid continental (Dfb) classification under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and is characterized by absence of sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. Summers are steadily warm with the average July temperature of 21 °C (70 °F) while winters, lasting two to three months, are cold, with the average January temperature of −4 °C (25 °F). Spring is cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, and a warm, dry, and long fall. There are an average of ninety-eight sunny days in a year. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements and five rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk is incorporated as Pyatigorsk Urban Okrug. The industry of Pyatigorsk is primarily oriented towards service of the health resort. There is also food industry (a meat-processing plant, a winery, a dairy, a brewery, a confectionery), textiles (clothing, shoe plant, carpet factories), machine industry and metal working (PО Pyatigorskselmash specializes in machines and equipment for agriculture; a special automobile equipment works, an electromechanical plant, etc.); a chemical factory and a ceramics factory who specialize in porcelain and ceramic gifts such as samovars, figurines, vases, and decorative ceramic wall hanging panels. In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had ten sanatoria, four boarding houses and five sanatoria-preventoria. The number of people who stayed at the health resort within a year totalled about 170,000. Pyatigorsk is a convenient starting point for numerous tourist routes. The southern slope of Mashuk has a 20 meters (66 ft) deep sinkhole, at the bottom of which there is a small lake. To climb Mashuk, there is a cable and a foot road. At the center of the health resorts, on the slopes and at the bottoms of Mounts Beshtau, Mashuk, Zmeyka, Razvalka, Zheleznaya, Ostrov, and Medovaya, there is Mount Beshtau forestland (mainly ash, oak, hornbeam, and beech). Points of interest: The monument marks the place of Lermontov's duel. The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973. It unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, and monument. The Aeolian harp is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828. Diana's grotto was built in 1830, in honor of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus. Pyatigorsk is well known in the Caucasus region for its excellent restaurants and nightlife, as well as for its extremely large marketplace. A major thoroughfare is known to locals as "Broadway", which runs through the center of the city, and on which most of the best restaurants, nightclubs, and attractions are located. Broadway is also a popular spot for people watching. The influence of the Caucasus region is felt here most noticeably in the music and cuisine, which incorporate aspects of many former Soviet republics such as Armenia. Pyatigorsk features prominently in Jonathan Littell's 2009 novel, The Kindly Ones. (Wikipedia). --- Scraping by in a Russian resort In the second of a series from southern Russia, the BBC's Steven Eke reports on the wealth gap in the spa town of Pyatigorsk. "Pyatigorsk" means "five peaks", and is the Russified version of "Beshtau", the Turkic name for the highest mountain in the region. A town of some 200,000 people, it is the capital of southern Russia's spa resorts. Pyatigorsk has a unique atmosphere. This year, summer has brought a drought and temperatures of up to 46C. There are many Russian and foreign tourists. The town's Soviet-era sanatoria are doing well, after the economic depression of the 1990s. Some are reserved for the military while others are purely commercial - and far from cheap. Unusually for Russia, there are also many cyclists, testing their stamina on the winding mountain roads on the outskirts of the town. Many of the town's mineral waters are said to have special therapeutic value. At one spot, bathers were immersing themselves in a bubbling pool of sulphuric water. I am travelling from southern to central Russia to find out how people far from Russia's boomtowns live. Here, society is conservative. There is fear of crime and "banditry", given the instability plaguing much of the North Caucasus. The local people are extremely hospitable, and more than happy to talk about themselves and their lives. Whatever the arguments between London and Moscow, I have experienced no hostility whatsoever. Most say life is very hard. Salaries are low - $100-200 a month on average, while prices continue to grow. It is not uncommon for people here to do more than one job. There is a pervasive cynicism about politicians, with many accusing them of personal enrichment at society's expense. There are some new, smart restaurants and shops. But there are few customers, with recreation for most people being an evening stroll down the town's main street. It is known locally as "Broadway". A huge statue of Lenin still towers at one end of it. Behind the lush greenery and picturesque mountain setting, there is considerable urban decay. Many of the once grand 19th-Century buildings are now fading. Much of the Soviet-era architecture is shabby, especially housing. In some suburbs, water is only available for a few hours a day. I came across an ethnic Russian family who had fled the war in Chechnya. They complained bitterly that they had been "abandoned" by the Russian government. I found seven members of the same family living in a ramshackle house just a few minutes from the town centre. They had waited four years for official compensation for the loss of their property in the Chechen capital, Grozny. By that time, the sum on offer had been eaten up by inflation. Out of curiosity, their neighbours came to find out who the unusual visitors were. In a conversation I have heard so often all over the former Soviet Union, they explained how, in Soviet times, a shashlik (meat kebab) and a jug of beer could be bought for less than a rouble. Now, they said despairingly, they could hardly afford their daily bread and (sometimes not even daily) milk. In keeping also with Soviet traditions, the neighbours then reported the arrival - and the questions - of the foreign journalists to the authorities. Old habits die hard. A very narrow section of society has prospered. In this part of Russia, it forms a still very embryonic middle class. Another family I visited has done very well. Natasha, who made her money in business, now describes her occupation as the "full-time upbringing of her daughter". Her flat, in a new apartment building, would put those of many Londoners to shame. Life was improving, she insisted. But given what 70 years of communism had done to Russia, she added, people needed to be realistic about the pace of change. She urged her fellow Russians to learn to rely more on themselves, and less on the state. © BBC 2014 ---- *Einsatzgruppe D. The headquarters staff of Einsatzgruppe D is in the dock (in Nuremberg, 1947). The commander was the defendant Ohlendorf and his deputy was the defendant Schubert. A subunit of Ohlendorf's command, Einsatzkommando 12, was commanded by the defendant Nosske. A third unit of Einsatzgruppe D, Sonderkommando 10b, was led by one Persterer who is now deceased. Persterer's deputy was the defendant Ruehl. During the first nine months of Ohlendorf's year in command of Einsatzgruppe D, this force destroyed more than 90,000 human beings. These thousands, killed at an average rate of 340 per day, were variously denominated Jews, gypsies, Asiaties, and "undesirables". Between 16 November and 15 December 1941, this Einsatzgruppe killed an average of 700 human beings per day for the whole 30-day period. The intensity of the labors of Einsatzgruppe D is suggested by an April 1942 report upon its work in the Crimea, which states - "The Crimea is freed of Jews. Only occasionally some small groups are turning up, especially in the northern areas. In cases where single Jews could camouflage themselves by means of forged papers, etc., they will, nevertheless, be recognized sooner or later, as experience has taught." In ordering these massacres Ohlendorf and his men were not without scruples: "It was," he said, "my wish that these executions be carried out in a manner and fashion which was military and suitably humane under the circumstances. For this reason I personally inspected a number of executions, for example, executions which were carried out by Kommando 11b under the direction of Dr. Werner Braune, executions by Kommando 11a under Sturmbannfuehrer Zapp in Nikolaev, and a smaller execution by Kommando 10b under the leadership of Alois Persterer in Ananev. For technical reasons (for example, because of road conditions) it was not possible to inspect all mass executions. Insofar as I was prevented from inspections for personal reasons, I ordered members of my staff to represent me at these. I remember that Schubert inspected an execution which was carried out by Kommando 11b under Braune's direction in December 1941 in Simferopol. The only people whom I generally assigned to inspections were, except for Schubert, Willy Seibert and Hans Gabel." The execution at Simferopol which Ohlendorf mentions was reported to Berlin as, "very difficult" because "reports about actions against Jews gradually filtered through from fleeing Jews, Russians, and also from unguarded talks of German soldiers." But these difficulties apparently increased the determination of Einsatzgruppe D. On 18 February it reported to Berlin - "By the end of February the combing-through of the occupied Crimea will have been finished. Certain important areas in towns in particular are being regularly rechecked. The search for isolated Jews who have up to now avoided being shot by hiding themselves or by giving false personnel data was contnued. From 9 January to 16 February more than 300 Jews were apprehended in Simferopol and executed. By this the number of persons executed in Simferopol increased to almost 10,000 Jews, about 300 more than the number of Jews registered. In the other Kommando areas as well, 100-200 Jews were still disposed of in each instance." The International Military Tribunal reached the conclusion from the evidence then before it that * - "Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD operating behind the lines of the eastern front engaged in the wholesale massacre of Jews * * *. Commissars, Jews, members of the intelligentsia, 'fanatical Communists' and even those who were considered incurably sick were classified as 'intolerable', and exterminated * * *. These units were also involved in the widespread murder and ill-treatment of the civilian population of occupied territories. Under the guise of combatting partisan units, units of the SS exterminated Jews and people deemed politically undesirable by the SS, and their reports record the execution of enormous numbers of persons." The brief details I have recounted indicate the character of the proof to come. It is for such crimes as these that we invoke the jurisdiction of this Court. * Trial of the Major War Criminals, vol. I, pp. 266, 267, 270, Nuremberg, 1947 Trials of War Criminals Before the Nurenberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10, Volume IV, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 45 - 46

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