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Wien, 1. Bezirk, Schottenkirche, letteralmente - la chiesa degli scozzesi, literalmente - la iglesia de los Escoceses, littéralement - l'église des écossais, literally - church of the Scots (Freyung)

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posted by Alfred Lex alias El Don Quijote de Viena on Wednesday 11th of October 2017 08:19:28 AM

In the foreground, Austriabrunnen, pozzo di Austria, fuente de Austria, puits de l'Autriche, fountain of Austria Scots Church (Vienna) Side view of the Freyung with vista to Scots Church, right in white the so-called Schubladkastenhaus (drawer castes house) The medieval Scots Church (further pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!) The Freyung, seen from the southeast to 1758 Interior of the Church of the Scots Main entrance to the Scots Church Monument to Jasomirgott, the founder of the Scottish monastery, on the south-facing exterior wall of the church. The Scots Church (Basilica of Our Lady to the Scots) is a Roman Catholic parish church in Vienna and at the same time the abbey church of a Benedictine abbey, the Schottenstift. It is located on the Freyung, Viennese 1st district Innere Stadt. History The old Scots Church Already shortly after the foundation of the Vienna Scots monastery by Duke Henry II Jasomirgott in the year 1155, was began with the construction of the Scots church, it was consecrated in 1200 by the Bishop of Passau Wolfger of Erla. From this first, Romanesque church, a three-nave pillar church with an apse, only remnants in the Dark Sacristy and the Romanesque chapel are preserved. In the latter, which today serves as a day chapel, also a Romanesque statue of Mary Our Lady to the Scots (around 1250), the oldest representation of Mary of Vienna, can be found. When Henry Jasomirgott died in 1177, he was buried according to his wishes in the Scots Church in a high grave (cenotaph). Later, his wife Theodora and his daughter Agnes were laid to him. After disputes with the Viennese vicar, the Scots obtained as a result of an arbitration award papal delegated judges on 28 August 1265 parochial rights for their Viennese territory, firstly with restrictions on the baptismal and burial rights, from 1269, completely unlimited. 1276 the Scots Church fell victim to a great city fire, and so it was renewed to 1317 in early Gothic style. After an earthquake in 1443 damaged the church, the choir 1446-1469 was gothically redesigned. For this choir was 1469-1475 a large altar created, the so-called Scottish master altar. Master of the Schotten Altar Vienna Master of the Schotten Altar Vienna: Flight to Egypt (detail), 1470 The Master of the Vienna Scots Altar or also Vienna Scots Master was an in to 1470 in the Austrian range active painter of the Late Gothic. Because his real name is unknown, he is named after the by him for the Schottenstift (monastery) in Vienna created large wing altar, the so-called "Vienna Scots altar". The Master is considered as one of the most important Dutch or Upper Rhine influenced painter in the Austria of his time. His influence should be gone over his students far beyond the Vienna area. Thus, an altar in the Margaret Church of Medias in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) is considered to come from his school. Baroque reconstruction The collapse of a tower after lightning strike was taken in 1638 by Abbot Johann Walterfinger as a reason firstly the choir and the tower of church completely to overhaul. Here, however, was reduced the length of the church, so that the tower today is not directly connected to the longhouse. The establishment of the barrel-vaulted pilaster church with hinted transept was procured under Abbot Anton Spindler of Hofegg by the architects Andrea Allio the Elder, his cousin Andrea Allio the Younger and Silvestro Carlone. In the course of this new building also the crypt of the Schottenstift was layed out. The new church was on 31th May 1648 consecrated by the Viennese bishop Philipp Friedrich von Breuner. With the stone carvings was charged the imperial court sculptor and court stonecutter Peter Concorz, sculptor at Freyung. For this purpose, he bought a quarry in Kaisersteinbruch (Lower Austria), according to the contract with Abbot Michael II Schnabel from Heiligenkreuz Abbey. 1651 established the Hofsteinmetzmeister (court stonecutter) Bartholomew Khöll the main entrance of the tower facade. For the niche the sculptor Tobias Kracker created the statue of Mary with child. The Baroque painter Joachim von Sandrart created for the Scots Church the paintings of the Apostles altar (1652) and the cross altar (1654) as well as the new high altarpiece Heavenly Glory (1671), which today is located in the Prälatensaal (prelate's saloon) of the Schottenstift. Tobias Pock painted the altarpieces of St. Mary's altar, of the Benediktusaltar (both 1651-1655) and of Sebastianaltar (1655-1658) as well as an at the end of the 20th Century again uncovered fresco of the St. Wolfgang (about 1655). After the second Turkish siege the church was restored again. Since the baroque west towers hardly overtop the facade, there have been plans to increase it - but never got to it. For Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna in the Turkish siege which was buried in the crypt of the Scots church, designed Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach to 1725 an epitaph in the church. Transformations in the 19th and 20 Century From 1883 to 1887 Abbot Ernest Hauswirth had the church restored and partially remodeled. Except for Benedict and Gregorius altar the Baroque altars were replaced by altars in the neo-Renaissance and neo-Baroque style. It emerged a new high altar after designs of Heinrich Ferstel with a mosaic of Michael Rieser and new ceiling paintings by Julius Schmid. The founder Henry Jasomirgott, who had been reburied several times over the centuries, got in 1901 in the crypt of the Scots church a neo-Roman sarcophagus as yet final resting place. In 1958 the Scots Church by Pope Pius XII. was raised to the rank of a minor basilica. Under Abbot Heinrich Ferenczy in the years 1992 to 1994 the choir was accordingly to the liturgical reforms of the 20th Century transformed. The new main altar was placed at the intersection of the two main axes, the ambo before the altar in the center axis of the nave. New built was also a new choir stalls. Organs Among the monastery organists who worked at the Scots Church are included Wolfgang Schmeltzl (1550s-years, as schoolmaster), Johann Rasch (1570-1601), the former court organist Georg Piscator (1649-1660), the great Baroque musician Johann Joseph Fux (1696 -1702), Johann Baptist Henneberg (about 1783) and the current St. Pölten organist Louis Lussier (2000-2006). Current Stiftsorganistin (monastery organist) is Zuzana Ferjenčíková (since 2006). In the wake of the last church renovation two new organs were placed in the Scots Church. Both the choir organ (1994) as well as the main organ (1996 ) were built by the Swiss Organ Manufactory Mathis. Choir Organ The choir organ has 20 stops on two manuals and pedal. The instrument was along the lateral choir walls in two parts layed out, on the right is as epistelorgel (epistle organ) the main section with the play table, left as Gospels organ behind an identical prospectus the swellable side section and pedal. I Hauptwerk C-g3 1 Principal 8' 2 Reed flute 8' 3 Octave 4' 4 Flute 4' 5 Quinte 22/3' 6 Superoctave 2' 7 Mixture V 11 /3' 8 Trumpet 8' II Brustwerk (swellable) C-g3 9 Holzgedackt 8' 10th Salicional 8' 11th Spitz Flute 4' 12th Nasat 22/3' 13th Waldflöte 2' 14th Third, 13/5' 15th Quinte 11/3' 16th Wood Shelf 8' tremulant C- pedal f1 17th Subwoofer 16' 18th Praestantflöte 8' 19th Choir Albass 4' 20th Bassoon 16' Couplers: II / I, I / P II / P Main organ The main organ found nomination in the historic prospect, which had been created for the former organ of Ignaz Kober (1804). The instrument with mechanical play and Registertrakturen (stop actions) with electronic combination system has 49 stops on three manuals and pedal. I Hauptwerk C -g3 1 Praestant 16' 2 Octave 8' 3 Harmonique Flûte 8' 4 Bourdon 8' 5 Viola di Gamba 8' 6 Octave 4' 7 Spitz Flute 4' 8 Quinte 22/3' 9 Doublet 2' 10th Mixture IV 2' 11th Scharff IV 1' 12th Cornet V 8' 13th Bombard 16' 14th Trompette 8' II Rückpositiv C -g3 15th Gedackt 8' 16th Quintade 8' 17th Praestant 4' 18th Reed flute 4' 19th Sesquialtera II 22 /3' 20th Octave 2' 21, Waldflöte 2' 22, Larigot 11/3' 23, Cymbals IV 1' 24th Cromorne 8' tremulant Swell III C -g3 25th Bourdon 16' 26th Portunalflöte 8' 27th Salicional 8' 28th Voix Céleste 8' 29th Principal 4' 30th Octaviante Flûte 4' 31, Salicet 4' 32nd Nasat 22/3' 33rd Octavin 2' 34th Third, 13/5' 35th Plein Jeu V 22 /3' 36th Harmonique Trompette 8' 37th Basson - Hautbois 8' 38th Voix Humaine 8' 39th Harmonique Clairon 4' tremulant C- pedal f1 40th Under 32' 41st Principal 16' 42nd Subwoofer 16' 43rd Octavbass 8' 44th Bourdon 8' 45th Choir Albass 4' 46th Hintersatz V 4' 47th Trombone 16' 48th Prong 8' 49th Clairon 4' Couplers: II/I, III/I, III/II, I/P II/P III/P Play Help: Organo Pleno (principals, basic votes, I and P) Baptisms, weddings, funerals Among the many people who have been baptized in the Scots church, are included the rococo painter Giovanni Antonio Guardi, the Porzellanmodellierer (porcelain modeler) Anton Grassi and the film director Fritz Lang. In the Scots church have married the portrait painter Frans Luyckx, the Baroque musician Johann Joseph Fux, the stonemason Johann Paul Schilck, the Baroque painter Paul Troger, the musician Franz Anton von Weber and the orientalist Joseph von Karabacek. In the crypt of the Scots Church lie buried the founder Duke Henry II Jasomirgott, his wife Theodora and his daughter Agnes as well as the defender of Vienna, Count Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg, the High Steward Prince Johann Ferdinand of Porcia, the Field Marshal Count Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller, the diplomat Count Amadeus Gottlieb Windisch-Graetz, Franz Freiherr (baron) von Lisola and Johann Rudolf Schmid Baron of Schwarzenhorn, the sculptor Johann Jacob Pock and the painter Paul Troger. On the 1751 abandoned Voglsang cemetery next to the Church the painter Frans Luyckx was buried. For the composer Joseph Haydn, who had initially been buried because of the occupation of Vienna by the French only in all quietness on the Hundsturmer cemetery, was celebrated on 15th June 1809 a great memorial service in the Scots Church, on the occasion was sang Mozart's Requiem. (if you don't go away but to the end of page you can see further pictures and information!) Schubladkastenhaus 1st district, Freyung 7 The monastery builder of Schottenstift at Freyung, Andreas Zach (25/09/1736 - 02/16/1797), built between 1773 and 1774 according to designs by Franz Zach an adjacent to the Scots church residential building for the monastery, a so-called the Prioratshaus (Priory-House). In the design of the building Zach differed from the then for the high baroque customary features by building up all the floors of the house similarly and rounding off the corners of the facade strongly. The height of all floors is almost the same, and the window axes extend from top to bottom as good as identical, and a main floor is not marked. The reason for this was not alone the idea of ​​Zach's but a Building Regulation, which came into force and prescribed to use as much as possible the space in new buildings, so no overheight ceremonial premises and floors to calculate. However, the Viennese population was outraged by the simplicity of the facade in those days and called the house mockingly "Schubladkastenhaus" because the shape and the arrangement of the building, in fact, are reminiscent of a multi-storey dresser. For today's eye the baroque-classicist Priory-House fits perfectly into the ensemble of Freyung. The magnificent portal in the center of the minim prominent central risalit, which is roofed over by a large triangular pediment and divided with pilasters, stands out from the rusticated ground floor and the mezzanine. The symmetry of the building additionally is accentuated by three large identical chimneys on the roof gable. Today, on the ground floor are located a pharmacy and a herb house.

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