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Monochrome, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, United States Of America.

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posted by DM PHOTOGRAPHY alias [email protected]com on Wednesday 9th of December 2020 09:26:19 PM

Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named as a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park.[5] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979. The park celebrated its 100th anniversary on February 26, 2019. The Grand Canyon became well known to Americans in the 1880s after railroads were built and pioneers developed infrastructure and early tourism.[7] In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt visited the site and said, "The Grand Canyon fills me with awe. It is beyond comparison—beyond description; absolutely unparalleled through-out the wide world... Let this great wonder of nature remain as it now is. Do nothing to mar its grandeur, sublimity and loveliness. You cannot improve on it. But what you can do is to keep it for your children, your children's children, and all who come after you, as the one great sight which every American should see."[8] Despite Roosevelt's enthusiasm and strong interest in preserving land for public use, the Grand Canyon was not immediately designated as a national park. The first bill to establish Grand Canyon National Park was introduced in 1882 by then-Senator Benjamin Harrison, which would have established Grand Canyon as the third national park in the United States, after Yellowstone and Mackinac. Harrison unsuccessfully reintroduced his bill in 1883 and 1886; after his election to the presidency, he established the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve in 1893. Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon Game Preserve by proclamation on 28 November 1906,[9] and the Grand Canyon National Monument on January 11, 1908.[10] Further Senate bills to establish the site as a national park were introduced and defeated in 1910 and 1911, before the Grand Canyon National Park Act was finally signed by President Woodrow Wilson on February 26, 1919.[11] The National Park Service, established in 1916, assumed administration of the park. The creation of the park was an early success of the conservation movement. Its national park status may have helped thwart proposals to dam the Colorado River within its boundaries. (Later, the Glen Canyon Dam would be built upriver.) A second Grand Canyon National Monument to the west was proclaimed in 1932.[12] In 1975, that monument and Marble Canyon National Monument, which was established in 1969 and followed the Colorado River northeast from the Grand Canyon to Lees Ferry, were made part of Grand Canyon National Park. In 1979, UNESCO declared the park a World Heritage Site. The 1987 the National Parks Overflights Act[13] found that "Noise associated with aircraft overflights at the Grand Canyon National Park is causing a significant adverse effect on the natural quiet and experience of the park and current aircraft operations at the Grand Canyon National Park have raised serious concerns regarding public safety, including concerns regarding the safety of park users." In 2010, Grand Canyon National Park was honored with its own coin under the America the Beautiful Quarters program.[14] On February 26th 2019, the Grand Canyon National Park commemorated 100 years since it's designation as a national park.[15] Geography Grand Canyon regional map The Grand Canyon, including its extensive system of tributary canyons, is valued for its combination of size, depth, and exposed layers of colorful rocks dating back to Precambrian times. The canyon itself was created by the incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries after the Colorado Plateau was uplifted, causing the Colorado River system to develop along its present path. The primary public areas of the park are the South and North Rims, and adjacent areas of the canyon itself. The rest of the park is extremely rugged and remote, although many places are accessible by pack trail and backcountry roads. The South Rim is more accessible than the North Rim and accounts for 90% of park visitation.[16] The park headquarters are at Grand Canyon Village, not far from the South Entrance to the park, near one of the most popular viewpoints. South Rim From Powell Point on the South Rim Most visitors to the park come to the South Rim, arriving on Arizona State Route 64. The highway enters the park through the South Entrance, near Tusayan, Arizona, and heads eastward, leaving the park through the East Entrance.[17] Interstate 40 provides access to the area from the south. From the north, U.S. Route 89 connects Utah, Colorado, and the North Rim to the South Rim.[18] Overall, some 30 miles of the South Rim are accessible by road.[19][citation needed] North Rim Sunset at Cape Royal Point, North Rim. Wotans Throne featured. The North Rim area of the park is located on the Kaibab Plateau and Walhalla Plateau, directly across the Grand Canyon from the principal visitor areas on the South Rim. The North Rim's principal visitor areas are centered around Bright Angel Point. The North Rim is higher in elevation than the South Rim, at over 8,000 feet (2,400 m) of elevation. Because it is so much higher than the South Rim, it is closed from December 1 through May 15 each year, due to the enhanced snowfall at elevation. Visitor services are closed or limited in scope after October 15. Driving time from the South Rim to the North Rim is about 4.5 hours, over 220 miles (350 km). [16] Services Grand Canyon Village is the primary visitor services area in the park. It is a full-service community, including lodging, fuel, food, souvenirs, a hospital, churches, and access to trails and guided walks and talks.[20] Lodging Several lodging facilities are available along the South Rim. Hotels and other lodging include El Tovar, Bright Angel Lodge, Kachina Lodge, Thunderbird Lodge, and Maswik Lodge, all of which are located in the village area, and Phantom Ranch, located on the canyon floor. There is also an RV Park named Trailer Village. All of these facilities are managed by Xanterra Parks & Resorts, while the Yavapai Lodge (also in the village area) is managed by Delaware North.[21] On the North Rim there is the historic Grand Canyon Lodge[21] managed by Forever Resorts and a campground near the lodge, managed by the national park staff.[22] Climate According to the Köppen climate classification system, Grand Canyon National Park has five climate zones; Cold Semi-Arid (BSk), Humid Continental Dry Cool Summer (Dsb), Humid Continental Dry Warm Summer (Dsa), Warm Summer Mediterranean (Csb), and Hot Summer Mediterranean (Csa). The plant hardiness zone at Grand Canyon Visitor Center is 7a with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of 3.3 °F (−15.9 °C).[23] Climate data for Grand Canyon Visitor Center, Grand Canyon Village, Grand Canyon National Park, Coconino County, AZ (1981 – 2010 averages). MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average high °F (°C)46.6 (8.1)50.0 (10.0)57.2 (14.0)65.9 (18.8)76.2 (24.6)86.9 (30.5)90.7 (32.6)87.1 (30.6)81.2 (27.3)69.2 (20.7)55.2 (12.9)46.3 (7.9)67.8 (19.9) Daily mean °F (°C)35.6 (2.0)38.4 (3.6)44.2 (6.8)51.1 (10.6)60.8 (16.0)70.1 (21.2)75.4 (24.1)72.5 (22.5)66.2 (19.0)54.9 (12.7)43.1 (6.2)35.1 (1.7)54.0 (12.2) Average low °F (°C)24.5 (−4.2)26.9 (−2.8)31.1 (−0.5)36.3 (2.4)45.3 (7.4)53.3 (11.8)60.1 (15.6)57.9 (14.4)51.1 (10.6)40.7 (4.8)30.9 (−0.6)24.0 (−4.4)40.2 (4.6) Average precipitation inches (mm)1.42 (36)1.41 (36)1.63 (41)0.94 (24)0.53 (13)0.32 (8.1)1.20 (30)1.94 (49)1.18 (30)1.01 (26)0.90 (23)1.17 (30)13.65 (347) Average relative humidity (%)47.144.838.730.424. Source: PRISM Climate Group[24] MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average Dew Point °F17.418.820.621.023.826.238.344.035.426.520.316.625.8 Average Dew Point °C-8.1-7.3-6.3-6.1-4.6- Source: PRISM Climate Group[24] Activities North Rim From Toroweap Overlook on the North Rim There are few roads on the North Rim, but there are some notable vehicle-accessible lookout points, including Point Imperial, Roosevelt Point, and Cape Royal. Mule rides are also available to a variety of places, including several thousand feet down into the canyon. Many visitors to the North Rim choose to make use of the variety of hiking trails including the Widforss Trail, Uncle Jim's Trail, the Transept Trail, and the North Kaibab Trail. The North Kaibab Trail can be followed all the way down to the Colorado River, connecting across the river to the South Kaibab Trail and the Bright Angel Trail, which continue up to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon. The Toroweap Overlook is located in the western part of the park on the North Rim. Access is via unpaved roads off Route 389 west of Fredonia, Arizona. The roads lead through Grand Canyon–Parashant National Monument and to the overlook. South Rim From Desert View on the South Rim A variety of activities at the South Rim cater to park visitors. A driving tour (35 miles (56 km)) along the South Rim is split into two segments. The western drive to Hermit's Point is eight miles (13 km) with several overlooks along the way, including Mohave Point, Hopi Point, and the Powell Memorial.[20] From March to December, access to Hermit's Rest is restricted to the free shuttle provided by the Park Service. The eastern portion to Desert View is 25 miles (40 km), and is open to private vehicles year round. Walking tours include the Rim Trail, which runs west from the Pipe Creek viewpoint for about eight miles (13 km) of paved road, followed by seven miles (11 km) unpaved to Hermit's Rest. Hikes can begin almost anywhere along this trail, and a shuttle can return hikers to their point of origin. Mather Point, the first view most people reach when entering from the south entrance, is a popular place to begin. Private canyon flyovers are provided by helicopters and small airplanes out of Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport. Due to a crash in the 1990s, scenic flights are no longer allowed to fly within 1,500 feet (460 m) of the rim within the Grand Canyon National Park.[25] Flights within the canyon are still available outside of park boundaries.[26] Development The U.S. government halted development of a 1.6 million acre area including the national park from 1966 to 2009, known as the Bennett Freeze, because of an ownership dispute between Hopi and Navajo.[27] Grand Canyon Association Main article: Grand Canyon Association The Grand Canyon Association (GCA) is the National Park Service's official nonprofit partner. It raises private funds to benefit Grand Canyon National Park by operating retail shops and visitor centers within the park, and providing educational opportunities about the natural and cultural history of the region. Arizona (/ˌærɪˈzoʊnə/ (About this soundlisten) ARR-iz-OH-nə; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo Navajo pronunciation: [hoː˥zto˩ ha˩hoː˩tso˩];[7] O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak)[8] is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain states. It is the 6th largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the internationally known Grand Canyon National Park, which is one of the world's seven natural wonders, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments. Since the 1950s, Arizona's population and economy have grown dramatically because of migration into the state, and now the state is a major hub of the Sun Belt. Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large, sprawling suburban areas. Many large companies, such as PetSmart and CircleK,[9] have headquarters in the state, and Arizona is home to major universities, including the University of Arizona and Arizona State University. Traditionally, the state is politically known for national conservative figures such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain, though it voted Democratic in the 2020 presidential and senatorial elections. Arizona is home to a diverse population. About one-quarter of the state[10] is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Since the 1980s, the proportion of Hispanics in the state's population has grown significantly owing to migration from Mexico. The state also has a substantial Mormon population. Etymology The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which initially applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.[11][12][13][14] To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona.[15] The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.[8] Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona ("the good oak"), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.[16][17][18] A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería (village) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c. 1737.[19] The misconception that the state's name originated from the supposedly Spanish term Árida Zona ("Arid Zone") is considered a case of folk etymology.[15] History Main article: History of Arizona This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Arizona" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The North Rim of the Grand Canyon The South Rim of the Grand Canyon For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to many Native American tribes. Hohokam, Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year. La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition In 1539, Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, became the first European to contact Native Americans. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar.[20] Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus ("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California").[21] Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European-American migrants from the United States. Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwesternmost state. During the Mexican–American War (1847–1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of $15 million in compensation (equivalent to $443,250,000 in 2019) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.[22] In 1853, the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway. What is now known as the state of Arizona was initially administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.[23] This newly established territory was formally organized by the federal government of the Confederate States on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona,[24] marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass (1862). Geronimo (far right) and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers. The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.[25] The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory.[26] Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,[27] when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley. It was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona".) Brigham Young, patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah, sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford, and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory. During the nineteenth century, a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory, the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of Tombstone, Arizona in southeast Arizona, also known for its legendary outlaws and lawmen.[28] By the late 1880s, copper production eclipsed the precious metals with the rise of copper camps like Bisbee, Arizona and Jerome, Arizona.[29][30] The boom and bust economy of mining also left hundreds of ghost towns across the territory, but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907, which earned Arizona the nickname "the Copper State" at the time of statehood.[31][32] During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners' strike.[33] The state continues to produce half of the nation's newly mined copper. Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937 20th century to present During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Mexicans won the first battle and the Americans won the latter. After Mexican federal troops fired on U.S. soldiers, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars, which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico. Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted. Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center, April 23, 1943 Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression. But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936). Arizona was the site of German prisoner of war camps during World War II and Japanese American internment camps. Because of wartime fears of a Japanese invasion of the U.S. West Coast (which in fact materialized in the Aleutian Islands Campaign in June 1942), the government authorized the removal of all Japanese American residents from all the Alaska Territory and California, the western halves of Washington and Oregon, and Southern Arizona. From 1942 to 1945, they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix-area German P.O.W. site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese-American internment camp was on Mount Lemmon, just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.[34] Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the Mojave-Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, brought a legal suit, Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.[35] Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning, which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter. In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These age-restricted subdivisions catered exclusively to the needs of senior citizens and attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the U.S. and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds. In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office.[36] In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary. In the 21st century, Arizona has frequently garnered national attention for its efforts to quell illegal immigration into the state. In 2004, voters passed Proposition 200, requiring proof of citizenship to register to vote. The US Supreme Court struck this restriction down in 2013.[37] In 2010, Arizona enacted SB 1070 which required illegal immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, but the Supreme Court also invalidated parts of this law in Arizona v. United States in 2012. On January 8, 2011, a gunman shot congresswoman Gabby Giffords and 18 others at a gathering in Tucson. Giffords was critically wounded. The incident sparked national attention regarding incendiary political rhetoric.[38] Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved. Geography and geology Main article: Geography of Arizona Köppen climate types of Arizona The Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado River West Mitten at Monument Valley Blue Mesa at Petrified Forest National Park The Grand Canyon Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations. There are 24 National Park Service maintained sites in Arizona, including the three national parks of Grand Canyon National Park, Saguaro National Park, and the Petrified Forest National Park.[39] Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests). Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains and plateaus. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest,[40] a percentage comparable to modern-day Romania or Greece.[41] The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.[42] The Mogollon Rim, a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history until 2011. Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River. The canyon is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted. Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers) wide and 570 feet (170 m) deep. Arizona is one of two U.S. states (Hawaii being the other) that do not observe Daylight Saving Time. (The large Navajo Nation in the state's northeastern region does.) Earthquakes Generally, Arizona is at low risk of earthquakes, except for the southwestern portion which is at moderate risk due to its proximity to southern California. On the other hand, northern Arizona is at moderate risk due to numerous faults in the area. The regions near and west of Phoenix have the lowest risk.[43] The earliest Arizona earthquakes were recorded at Fort Yuma, on the California side of the Colorado River. They were centered near the Imperial Valley, or Mexico, back in the 1800s. Residents in Douglas felt the 1887 Sonora earthquake with its epicenter 40 miles (64 km) to the south in the Mexican state of Sonora.[44] The first damaging earthquake known to be centered within Arizona occurred on January 25, 1906, also including a series of other earthquakes centered near Socorro, New Mexico. The shock was violent in Flagstaff. In September 1910, a series of 52 earthquakes caused a construction crew near Flagstaff to leave the area. In 1912, the year Arizona achieved statehood, on August 18, an earthquake caused a 50-mile crack in the San Francisco Range. In early January 1935, the state experienced a series of earthquakes, in the Yuma area and near the Grand Canyon. Arizona experienced its largest earthquake in 1959, with a tremor of a magnitude 5.6. It was centered near Fredonia, in the state's northwest near the border with Utah. The tremor was felt across the border in Nevada and Utah.[44] Adjacent states Utah (north) Colorado (northeast) Nevada (northwest) Sonora, Mexico (south) Baja California, Mexico (southwest) New Mexico (east) California (west) Climate This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.[45] About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.[45] Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971. Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m). The swings can be as large as 83 °F (46 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past. Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm),[46] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[47] The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C)[48] have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona. Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts. Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[49] Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona[50] LocationJuly (°F)July (°C)December (°F)December (°C) Phoenix106/8341/2866/4519/7 Tucson100/7438/2365/3918/4 Yuma107/8242/2868/4620/8 Flagstaff81/5127/1142/176/−8 Prescott89/6032/1651/2311/−5 Kingman98/6637/1956/3213/0 Demographics Main article: Demographics of Arizona A population density map of Arizona Historical population CensusPop.%± 18606,482— 18709,65849.0% 188040,440318.7% 189088,243118.2% 1900122,93139.3% 1910204,35466.2% 1920334,16263.5% 1930435,57330.3% 1940499,26114.6% 1950749,58750.1% 19601,302,16173.7% 19701,745,94434.1% 19802,718,21555.7% 19903,665,22834.8% 20005,130,63240.0% 20106,392,01724.6% 2019 (est.)7,278,71713.9% Sources: 1910–2010[51] 2019 estimate[52] Note that early censuses may not include Native Americans in Arizona The United States Census Bureau estimates Arizona's population was 7,278,717 on July 1, 2019, a 13.87% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[52] Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.[53] The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white".[54][55] Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply.[56] As of 2011, 61.3% of Arizona's children under age one belonged to racial groups of color. [57] The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[58] As of July 2018, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.9 million. According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.[59][60] Arizona has banned sanctuary cities.[61] Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson (1.0 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population. Race and ethnicity In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 16.2% Hispanic, 5.6% Native American, and 74.5% non-Hispanic white.[62] In 2010, the racial makeup of the state was: 73.0% White 4.6% Native American and Alaska Native 4.1% Black or African American 2.8% Asian 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 11.9% from some other race 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population. Non-Hispanic whites formed 57.8% of the total population.[63] Arizona racial breakdown of population Racial composition1970[64]1990[64]2000[65]2010[66] White90.6%80.8%75.5%73.0% Native5.4%5.5%5.0%4.6% Black3.0%3.0%3.1%4.1% Asian0.5%1.5%1.8%2.8% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander––0.1%0.2% Other race0.5%9.1%11.6%11.9% Two or more races––2.9%3.4% Ambox current red Asia Australia.svg This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2020) Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2009, were:[67] Mexican (27.4%); German (16.0%); Irish (10.8%); English (10.1%); Italian (4.6%). Languages Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona LanguagePercentage of population (as of 2010)[68] Spanish20.8% Navajo1.5% German0.4% Chinese (including Mandarin)0.4% Tagalog0.3% Vietnamese0.3% Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona)0.3% French0.3% Arabic0.2% Apache0.2% Korean0.2% A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley As of 2010, 72.9% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 20.8% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 1.5% (85,602) Navajo, 0.4% (22,592) German, 0.4% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), 0.3% (19,015) Tagalog, 0.3% (17,603) Vietnamese, 0.3% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by 0.3% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27.1% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English.[68] Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as more than 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo,[69] and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005.[69] Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.[70] Cities and towns See also: List of places in Arizona, List of cities and towns in Arizona, and List of Arizona counties This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006 Phoenix, in Maricopa County, is Arizona's capital and largest city. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7 million.[71] The average high temperature in July, 106 °F (41 °C), is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal. Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. Located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C). Saguaro National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains, is the site of the world's largest collection of Saguaro cacti. The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and many other towns in the 8,123 square miles (21,000 km2) of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C). Yuma is center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C).) The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States. Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contain Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east–west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University. Lake Havasu City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground", was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963.[72] It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.[73] vte Largest cities or towns in Arizona Source:[74] RankNameCountyPop.RankNameCountyPop. Phoenix Phoenix Tucson Tucson1PhoenixMaricopa1,660,27211YumaYuma97,908Mesa Mesa Chandler Chandler 2TucsonPima545,97512San Tan ValleyPinal90,665 3MesaMaricopa508,95813AvondaleMaricopa85,835 4ChandlerMaricopa257,16514GoodyearMaricopa82,835 5ScottsdaleMaricopa255,31015BuckeyeMaricopa74,370 6GlendaleMaricopa250,70216FlagstaffCoconino73,964 7GilbertMaricopa248,27917Casas AdobesPima68,919 8TempeMaricopa192,36418Casa GrandePinal57,232 9PeoriaMaricopa172,25919Lake Havasu CityMohave55,090 10SurpriseMaricopa138,16120Catalina FoothillsPima50,202 Religion The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700 Religion in Arizona (2014)[75] ReligionPercent Protestant   39% Unaffiliated   27% Catholic   21% Mormon   5% Jewish   2% Jehovah's Witness   1% Hindu   1% Buddhist   1% Muslim   1% Other   2% In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 410,263 members reported[76] and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents.[77] The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregations)[78] followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations). According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:[79][80] Religion2010 Population2000 Population Catholic Church930,001974,884 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints410,263251,974 Non-denominational Christianity281,10563,885[a] Southern Baptist Convention126,830138,516 Assemblies of God123,71382,802 United Methodist Church54,97753,232 Christian Churches and Churches of Christ48,38633,162 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America42,94469,393 Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod26,32224,977 Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)26,07833,554 Episcopal Church (United States)24,85331,104 Seventh-day Adventist Church20,92411,513 Church of the Nazarene16,99118,143 Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ14,3500 Churches of Christ14,15114,471 Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010 with more than 32,000 adherents, followed by Judaism with more than 20,000 and Buddhism with more than 19,000.[79][81][82] Economy See also: Economy of Arizona and Arizona locations by per capita income Arizona's Meteor Crater is a tourist attraction. The 2011 total gross state product was $259 billion. This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand.[dubious – discuss] The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors. The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.[83] Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output. Employment Total employment (2016): 2,379,409 Total employer establishments (2016): 139,134[84] The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with more than 39,000 employees (2016). As of August 2020, the state's unemployment rate was 5.9%.[85] The largest employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2020, Nonfarm Employment):[86] SectorEmployees Trade, transportation, and utilities553,300 Education and health services459,400 Government430,400 Professional and business services419,200 Leisure and hospitality269,400 Financial activities231,900 Manufacturing170,900 Construction169,900 Other services95,600 Information46,100 Mining and logging13,300 Largest employers According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2019 were:[87] RankCompanyEmployeesIndustry 1Banner Health44,718Healthcare 2Walmart Stores, Inc.34,071Discount retailer 3Kroger Co.20,530Grocery stores 4Wells Fargo & Co.16,161Financial services 5Albertsons Inc.14,500Grocery stores, retail drugstores 6McDonald's Corp.13,000Food service 7CVS Health12,100Healthcare 8Raytheon Co.12,000Defense 9HonorHealth11,919Healthcare 10Dignity Health10,562Healthcare 11Intel Corp.10,400Semiconductor manufacturing 12Home Depot Inc.10,200Retail home improvement 13 (tie)JP Morgan Chase & Co.10,000Financial services American Airlines10,000Airline 15Tenet Healthcare9,483Healthcare 16Bank of America Corp.9,200Financial services 17Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.8,759Mining 18Bashas' Supermarkets8,519Grocery stores 19Amazon.com8,500Online Shopping 20Target Corp.8,400Discount retailer 21Honeywell International Inc.7,792Aerospace manufacturing 22Circle K Corp.7,478Convenience stores 23Mayo Foundation7,436Healthcare 24State Farm7,200Insurance 25UnitedHealthcare7,194Healthcare Taxation Tax is collected by the Arizona Department of Revenue.[88] Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%.[89] The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%. In 2020, Arizona voters approved Proposition 208 to create an additional income tax bracket of 8% for incomes over $250,000 (single filers) and $500,000 (joint filers).[90] The Goldwater Institute filed a lawsuit challenging it, but it was rejected by Maricopa County Arizona Superior Court judge John Hannah Jr.[91][92] The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption. All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.[citation needed] SingleTax rateJointTax rate 0 – $10,0002.59%0 – $20,0002.59% $10,000 – $25,0002.88%$20,001 – $50,0002.88% $25,000 – $50,0003.36%$50,001 – $100,0003.36% $50,000 – $150,0014.24%$100,000 – $300,0014.24% $150,001 +4.54%$300,001 +4.54% Transportation Main article: Transportation in Arizona This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico Highways Interstate highways I-8 | I-10 | Future I-11 | I-15 | I-17 | I-19 | I-40 U.S. routes US 60 | US 64 | Historic US 66 | US 70 | Historic US 80 | US 89 | US 89A | US 91 | US 93 | US 95 | US 160 | US 163 | US 180 | US 191 Main Interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north–south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east–west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system. Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus See also: List of passenger train stations in Arizona The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide. A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.[93] Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas Eagle and Sunset Limited routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the discontinuation of the Desert Wind, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa. Aviation See also: List of airports in Arizona Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the state's largest airport and the major international airport); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is the world's 7th busiest airport in terms of aircraft movements and 17th for passenger traffic.[94][95] Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the nation's busiest general aviation airport.[96] Law and government Main article: Government of Arizona This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) See also: Arizona Constitution, United States congressional delegations from Arizona, List of Arizona Governors, Political party strength in Arizona, and Arizona Revised Statutes Capitol complex The original Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix The capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912. The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum. The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments. State legislative branch The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms. Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house. The majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993. The Democratic Party picked up several legislative seats in Arizona State House bringing Democratic Leader Charlene Fernandez one seat shy of a majority (31 to 29). Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber. The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, was slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also included more than $500 million in income and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system. State executive branch State of Arizona elected officials GovernorDoug Ducey (R) Secretary of StateKatie Hobbs (D) Attorney GeneralMark Brnovich (R) State TreasurerKimberley Yee (R) Superintendent of Public InstructionKathy Hoffman (D) State Mine InspectorJoe Hart (R) Corporation Commissioner Sandra Kennedy (D) Bob Burns (R) Lea Márquez Peterson (R) Boyd Dunn (R) Justin Olson (R) Speaker of the House Rusty Bowers (R) President of the Senate Karen Fann (R) Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor's mansion. During their term the governors reside within their private residence, with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey (R). Governor Jan Brewer assumed office in 2009 after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate.[97] Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state. Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to four terms).[98] Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. If appointed, the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession, including the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to Arizona's governorship. State judicial branch The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona, consisting of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, and five associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission, and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment. Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may declare laws unconstitutional if seated en banc. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza). The Arizona Court of Appeals, subdivided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices. Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county. Counties Art Deco doors of the Cochise County Courthouse in Bisbee Arizona is divided into 15 counties, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2). Arizona counties County nameCounty seatFounded2010 population[99]Percent of totalArea (sq. mi.)Percent of total ApacheSt. JohnsFebruary 24, 187971,5181.12%11,2189.84% CochiseBisbeeFebruary 1, 1881131,3462.05%6,2195.46% CoconinoFlagstaffFebruary 18, 1891134,4212.10%18,66116.37% GilaGlobeFebruary 8, 188153,5970.84%4,7964.21% GrahamSaffordMarch 10, 188137,2200.58%4,6414.07% GreenleeCliftonMarch 10, 19098,4370.13%1,8481.62% La PazParkerJanuary 1, 198320,4890.32%4,5133.96% MaricopaPhoenixFebruary 14, 18713,817,11759.72%9,2248.09% MohaveKingmanNovember 9, 1864200,1863.13%13,47011.82% NavajoHolbrookMarch 21, 1895107,4491.68%9,9598.74% PimaTucsonNovember 9, 1864980,26315.34%9,1898.06% PinalFlorenceFebruary 1, 1875375,7705.88%5,3744.71% Santa CruzNogalesMarch 15, 189947,4200.74%1,2381.09% YavapaiPrescottNovember 9, 1864211,0333.30%8,1287.13% YumaYumaNovember 9, 1864195,7513.06%5,5194.84% Totals: 156,392,017113,997 Federal representation Arizona's two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema (D) and Mark Kelly (D). Kelly succeeded Martha McSally who was appointed by Governor Doug Ducey following the resignation of Jon Kyl who himself was appointed by Ducey after the death of John McCain in late 2018. As of the start of the 115th Congress, Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O'Halleran (D-1), Ann Kirkpatrick (D-2), Raul Grijalva (D-3), Paul Gosar (R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert (R-6), Ruben Gallego (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Greg Stanton (D-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010. Political culture It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Politics of Arizona. (Discuss) (September 2020) See also: Elections in Arizona, Political party strength in Arizona, and United States presidential elections in Arizona Voter Registration as of November 2020[100] PartyNumber of votersPercentage Republican1,508,77835.24% Democratic1,378,32432.20% Other1,355,66531.67% Libertarian Party38,3850.90% Total4,281,152100% Party registration by county: Democrat >= 30% Democrat >= 40% Democrat >= 50% Republican >= 30% Republican >= 40% Unaffiliated—<30% From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928—all three were national Republican landslides. In 1924, Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship".[35] This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court, following a suit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. The landmark case is Harrison and Aust

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