Vicksburg National Military Park, v150, Vicksburg, MS, USA(PID:27906970423) Source
posted by Steve Minor alias lumierefl on Sunday 24th of July 2016 08:44:10 PM
Vicksburg, Mississippi (est. 1825, pop. 23,542) • Facebook • MS Delta • The Town & the Battle —NY Times Inscription: John C. Pemberton Lt. General C.S. Army Commanding Department of Miss. and East Lousianna Cadet U.S. Military Academy 1833 2nd Lt. 4th Art. July First 1837 First Lt. Mar. Nineteenth 1842 Captain September Sixteenth 1850 Resigned April Twenty-Fourth 1861 Brig. Gen. C.S. Army June 17 1861 Major General February 13 1862 To Rank From Jan. Fourteenth 1862 Lt. General Oct. Thirteenth 1862 To Rank From October Tenth 1862 • Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton (1814-1881) • born in Philadelphia, PA • graduated 27th of 50 cadets in the U.S. Military Academy class of 1837 • fought in the Seminole Wars (1835-1842) • wounded & decorated for gallantry during the Mexican–American War (1846-1848) • met & married Martha (Pattie) Thompson (1827-1907) of Norfolk, VA while in garrison at Ft. Monroe, 1848 • Patty owned a house slave, a gift from her father • she was a descendant of Elbridge Gerry, a signator of the Declaration of Independence, 5th Vice President of the U.S. & namesake of "gerrymandering," a manipulation of electoral district boundaries to gain political advantage “To Pemberton's family a southern girl was a strange animal, and the visit to Martha's relatives, planned by his sister Anna, ‘was about like an excursion into darkest Africa.’” —Pemberton: Defender of Vicksburg, by John C Pemberton (the General’s grandson), 1942 • stationed in the South & married to a southern woman, Pemberton admired southern values & had long advocated states’ rights • at the outbreak of the American Civil War he was offered a colonelcy in the Union Army but, in concert with Pattie's wishes, Pemberton cast his lot with the Confederacy • appointed Lieutenant Colonel • rose to Lieutenant General —John C. Pemberton, by Michael B. Ballard • in the spring of 1863, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (once a slaveholder himself) launched the Union Army campaign to capture Vicksburg with a force that grew to 77,000 men • Pemberton, who had fought along side Grant in Mexico, commanded the 33,000-man Army of Vicksburg in defense of the city "See what a lot of land these fellows hold, of which Vicksburg is the key! The war can never be brought to a close until that key is in our pocket... We can take all the northern ports of the Confederacy, and they can defy us from Vicksburg." —President Abraham Lincoln the Siege of Vicksburg was a decisive battle in the American Civil War, fought over a bid for independence by slaveholding states in the agricultural South • a Northern view of slavery —Quora • a British view of the Rebellion —History Today • the Federals under Gen. Wm. Tecumseh Sherman attacked 19 & 22 May • when repulsed with great loss, Grant decided to lay siege to the city, cutting off Confederate supply lines • Women Lived in Caves During the Siege of Vicksburg —Maggie MacLean • the victory over Sherman aside, Pemberton, remained a "Yankee" in the eyes of many of his men, unable to restore their confidence in his leadership after their defeat at the Battle of Champion Hill: "Today proved to the army and the country, the value of a General. Pemberton is either a traitor or the most incompetent officer in the Confederacy. Indecision, indecision, indecision ... Is he a traitor? Time will show. I cannot believe him such a villain. He is incompetent. Our soldiers and officers are determined not to be sold if they can possibly help it." —Cofederate Surgeon John A. Leavy, John Pemberton: The Wrong Man at the Wrong Place, Civil War Trust • Pemberton's urgent requests for reinforcements were refused by Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who had earlier urged the outmanned & outgunned Pemberton to abandon Vicksburg in spite of orders from Richmond to hold it at any cost • Johnston's 24,000-man "Army of Relief" remained on the sidelines while half-starved Confederate soldiers & Vicksburg citizens suffered the privations of siege warfare for 47 days —Civil War Trust Marker: Debate and Decision From his headquarters in this grand mansion, Confederate General Pemberton followed the movement of enemy troops during the siege. He watched his men suffering from lack of food and the relentless Union bombardment. After nearly 7 weeks, he gathered his commanders together. Did they have the will to keep fighting? Debating late into the night of July 2, 1863, Pemberton made the difficult decision to surrender. At 10 AM to-morrow I propose to evacuate the works in and around Vicksburg, and to surrender the city and the Garrison under my command, by marching out with my colors and arms, stacking them in front of my present lines, after which you will take possession. General John Pemberton July 3, 1863 • Pemberton surrendered his forces on July 4, 1863, American Independence Day • the Mississippi River was now in Union hands & once again open to the North's commercial traffic • Rashomon at Vicksburg —NY Times • The Unconditional Surrender Continues —HistoryNet • the humiliating defeat exacerbated the cross-cultural antipathy toward Yankees that had pervaded the South for generations & would continue to do so well into the future • the devastated City of Vicksburg did not officially celebrate the nation's birthday again until 1944 (though unofficial celebrations were not uncommon) • the victorious Union (U.S.) Army, which sealed the fate of both the Confederacy & slavery in America, was desegregated — in 1948 —How Liberals Invented Segregation by Nicholas Guyatt • blamed by many Southerners for the loss of Vicksburg, Pemberton was again accused of incompetence & because he was a Northerner, labeled a traitor • he accepted a reduction in rank & continued to serve the Confederacy as a colonel "This brave officer has suffered more from traducers than any other in the Southern Confederacy. He happened to have been born in a Northern State, and although he had married in Virginia, had reared his children as Southern people, had resided many years among us, and had rejected the offer of a large fortune to cast in his lot with the North, there were not wanting men ungenerous enough to impute his Northern birth to him as a crime, and to 'foretell' that upon the first opportunity he would prove a traitor to the cause he had espoused at so great a cost." —Richmond Times Dispatch, June, 1863 "He was accused of being a traitor to Vicksburg. He was not a traitor to Vicksburg. He was a loyal man fighting a losing battle." —V. Blaine Russell (1890-1980), historian & columnist, "Vicksburgesque," Vicksburg Evening Post • despite his refusal to come to Vicksburg's aid, Johnston retained his command in the Confederacy • after the war he became friends w/Union Gen. Sherman, later serving as an honorary pallbearer at his funeral • Pemberton requested a court of inquiry into his controversial role at Vicksburg, but was refused • he & Joe Johnston continued blaming each other for decades —Under Siege!: Three Children at the Civil War Battle for Vicksburg, by Andrea Warren The Man Who Surrendered Vicksburg Dead —Harrisburg (PA) Patriot • with negligible financial resources after the war, Pemberton worked a small farm in Warranton VA, a gift from his mother • returned to Philadelphia with his family, 1874 • after his death in 1881, Pattie moved to NYC where she lived at 226 W. 78th St. with their daughter, Patti Pemberton Berman (1850-1940) & grandson Leopold Clarence Berman (1882-1959) • Leopold legally changed his name to Pemberton Berman while a student at Yale (1899-1903) • became a prominent Wall Street broker & close friend of U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles • the General, Pattie & 3 of their 7 children are buried in Philadelphia's Laurel Hill Cemetery • in 1961, the local chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy installed a bronze memorial at his grave site • bronze statue cost $2,880, paid for by the Federal Govt. after neither his home state of Pennsylvania nor Mississippi, which he defended, were willing to provide the funds • sculpted 1917 by Edmund T. Quinn (1868-1929) • studied painting at Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Thomas Eakins & trained as a sculptor at the studio of Jean Antoine Injalbert, Paris • Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg (1863) • the 47-day Union siege ended in the Confederate surrender of the city • victory here & at Port Hudson, LA, gave the Union control of the Mississippi River • park includes 1,325 historic monuments & markers, 20 miles (32 km) of Civil War era trenches & earthworks, 144 cannons & the USS Cairo, a restored gunboat... read on • originally established in 1899 • 5th national military park under the control of the U.S. War Department • ownership transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior & the National Park Service, 1933 • 8th oldest National Park • Facebook • Vicksburg's State Memorials • the military leaders of the Battle of Vicksburg [photos] • National Register # 66000100, 1966
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- Published 07.07.22
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