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The universe and world/Fangruida

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posted by scott gf alias scottgf on Saturday 15th of October 2016 03:43:57 AM

The universe, the human (highly intelligent species), and the history of particle matter and the evolution of the program and each other --- and then the beginning and end of New natural structure and doctrine of the essence of the system of the universe and super-spin (Fangruida) The universe, the human (highly intelligent species), and the history of particle matter and the evolution of the program and each other --- and then the beginning and end of New natural structure and doctrine of the essence of the system of the universe and super-spin (Fangruida) * Universe - human - particle - matter - time and space, not only the natural sciences the most important basic research, and also the philosophy and social sciences research to explore an important issue. Humanity, by its very nature, is only one of the two highly intelligent biological species. Of course, it is derived from the natural universe, with particle - the substance is closely related to the evolution of mutual evolution. Large scale structure of today's people to 10Mpc above structure called the universe (currently observed size of the universe is 104Mpc). So far the large-scale observation of the facts is far from clear. Nearly half a century, through the study of extragalactic people, has not only found a cluster of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies and other celestial higher level systems, and has enabled us to expand horizons far into the depths of the universe about 20 billion light-years. Galaxies can be divided into elliptical galaxies, spiral galaxies, barred galaxies, lens galaxies and irregular galaxies. 60 years and found that many are experiencing or are in the process of explosive projectiles extragalactic objects massive material, collectively known as active galaxies, including a variety of radio galaxies, Seyfert galaxies, N-type galaxies, Markarian galaxies, Lacerta BL-type objects, and quasars, and so on. There are all sorts of extreme physical state in the universe: ultra-high temperature, high pressure, high density, ultra-high vacuum, powerful magnetic field, ultra high-speed movement, ultra high-speed rotation, the large scale of time and space, superfluidity, superconductivity. Ordinary particles, which are usually bound together in the form of atoms. Proton and neutrons are made up of smaller particles. Due to the anthropic principle of the proposed and discussed, there has been the relationship between human existence and the universe. The anthropic principle holds that there may be many universes with different physical parameters and initial conditions, but only the physical parameters and the initial conditions of the universe to evolve a specific value, so we can only see a human being to allow the universe. Anthropic principle with the existence of mankind to constrain the past may have the initial conditions and physical laws " Origin of Species " is the founder of the theory of evolution of Darwin's first masterpiece, the authors imagine standing on the position of opponents to the theory of evolution put forward a series of question, and then explain everything to make it dissolve. This shows the author's courage and doctrine itself invincible vitality. In the third most, with its Darwinian natural selection as the core of the evolution of the biosphere in geological history evolution, geographic changes, shape Fenyi, the embryonic development of the various phenomena convincing explanation, thus, So that this theory has been further support. . The first process is the chemical evolution of the origin of life (occurring more than a billion years after Earth's formation), that is, from non-living matter through a series of complex changes, and gradually become the original life process. The second process is the process of biological evolution (occurring three billion years ago, the original life to the present), that is, from the original life to continue to evolve, from simple to complex, from low to high, from aquatic to terrestrial, after a long process Until the development of today's colorful biological world, and continue to develop the process of change. 2. The second stage of the process of chemical evolution: the formation of organic small molecules from organic polymer substances Under the appropriate conditions, some amino acids form the original protein molecules by condensation, while the nucleotides are the most important molecules in the original sea. The amino acids, nucleotides, monosaccharides, purines and pyrimidines in the original ocean are extremely long accumulating and interacting with each other. The original nucleic acid molecules are formed by polymerization. Mainly by life activities - appear primitive proteins and nucleic acids means life ever since important material basis. (3) the significance of the first performance in: eukaryotic cells in the structure and function of complex, biologically diverse type of foundation. Second, because sexual reproduction process of meiosis is a special form of mitosis, so that eukaryotic cell mitosis for sexual reproduction has laid the foundation. Three 19th-century natural science discovery and its inventor is: 1. cell theory in the 1830s by the German botanist Schleiden and the zoologist Schwann proposed the main contents are: the cells are animal and plant organisms Basic structural units, but also the basic unit of life activities. In this way, the structure of the entire biological unity, the cells of all biological species are linked, there is a biological relationship between each other. This is a great support for the theory of biological evolution. The establishment of the cell theory strongly promoted the development of biology. 2. The law of conservation of energy and conversion can be said to be the result of more than study. 3. Biological evolution 1859, British biologist Charles Darwin published "The Origin of Species ," explained the theory of natural selection as the main content of the theory of biological evolution , creationism and to species unchanged on a heavy blow. It is also found that one of the three 19th-century science. In 1859, British biologist and founder of evolutionary biology Charles Darwin proposed a theory of evolution by natural selection in his masterpiece, "The Origin of Species" in. The main point of this theory is that the individuals in the population have different traits, and these individuals have different adaptability to their environment. Because of the limited space and food, the individuals have survival competition. As a result, the individuals with favorable traits can survive. reproduction passed on to offspring, have a negative trait individuals will gradually be phased out (ofthe nature of this process Darwin left superior and eliminating the inferior is called natural selection); due to the long-term effects of natural selection, the same species in different regions may occur Characters Divergence and lead to the formation of new species Quantum theory Quantum theory is one of the two cornerstones of modern physics. Quantum theory provides us with a new way of expressing and thinking about nature.Quantum theory reveals the basic laws of the micro-material world, for the atomic physics, solid-state physics, nuclear physics and particle physics laid the theoretical foundation. It is a good explanation of atomic structure, atomic spectra and other properties of the regularity of the chemical elements, the light absorption and radiation. Relativistic theory of relativity (Relativity) The basic assumption is that the principle of relativity , that the laws of physics and the choice of reference no massive objects distort space-time to change the direction of travel of objects off. The difference between special and general relativity is that the former is discussed in uniform motion reference frame ( inertial reference frame the laws of physics) between the latter frame of reference extended to an acceleration in the (non-inertial), and the like effect principle under the assumption, widely used in a gravitational field. Relativity and quantum mechanics are the two basic pillars of modern physics. In 1915 (Einstein's general theory of relativity to create the work completed in late 1915, early 1916 was published papers related) DNA structure of the DNA double helix structure proposed beginning opened the era of molecular biology, genetic research so deep into the molecular level "mystery of life" is opened, it is a clear understanding of the composition and way of transfer of genetic information. In 1953, Watson and Crick discovered the DNA double helix structure, opening the era of molecular biology, genetic research so deep into the molecular level, "the mystery of life" is opened, it became clear understanding constitutes genetic information and Pass the route . 6 2 share to: Genetic Engineering Information technology, biotechnology, new materials technology , new energy technology, laser technology, automation technology, space technology, marine technology   21st century the pace began to enter the moon, and ready to enter the distant Mars, Jupiter satellites. The closest distance between them is about 55 million km, the distance is more than 400 million kilometers. Close contact between the two occurs approximately every 15years. 1988 Mars distance and the Earth had reached about 58.8 million km, while the distance between the two in 2018 will reach 57.6 million kilometers. The 21st century will be the era of the information revolution. Structure and function of the computer toward miniaturization, powerful features, and intelligent network direction, man -machine interface more friendly. With the development of intelligent science, the new concept computer which simulates the process of human brain cognition and thought will come out and the traditional computer architecture will be broken.    The 21st century will be the century of life science and technology. Early 2000s, whole-genome mapping and sequencing the human, rice and some other important species will be completed, with the advance after the genome project will lead to a new revolution in medicine and health and agriculture industries.    21st century will be new materials, advanced manufacturing technology era of rapid development and wide application. In the new century, the development of materials science and technology will focus on functional, composite, intelligent, miniaturized and coordinated with the environment characteristics of the direction. The most active areas of materials will be functional materials, nanomaterials, biomaterials, new energy sources (such as solar energy) and energy (superconducting, fuel cell, etc.) materials, safe, efficient and clean nuclear energy technology will obtain new breakthrough, tidal power, fuel cells, solar, wind, biomass and other quality of the 21st century will continue to be the human space, ocean, deep earth expanding century. In addition to maintaining the harmonious coexistence and sustainable development of man and nature, but also to further explore the Xinjiang and sea areas, to understand and explore the deep earth. The use of modern high-tech advances, and people will be more actively study the origin and evolution of the universe, to explore the universe of dark matter and antimatter, the establishment of large-scale joint space experiment stations, and so on into the Martian moon. The leading group of information technology, including biology, materials, energy, advanced manufacturing and automation, aerospace, marine and other high-tech group, formed the mainstream of contemporary high-tech development. Which is characterized by strong industrial relevance, market demand potential, technology-intensive and high value-added products, and are toward a broader macro-areas, more sophisticated micro-areas and more complex in three directions In space, NASA will have a major event in 2016, which is the number of Jupiter Jupiter Jupiter into orbit, after five years of deep space flight, Juno finally arrived in Jupiter.The world's largest cosmic-ray observatory will be built in Argentina, scientists plan in 2016 effective separation of cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere produced by the secondary particle reaction products: electronic and muon nuclear physics, the ITER nuclear tokomak nuclear The fusion reactors will be launched in southern France, and the thermonuclear reactor began to be ready for start-up after the ITER board meeting in November. Germany's Wendelstein 7-X fusion reactor has been launched, the European scientists trying to create in 2016 the basic model of artificial sun. In quantum physics, 2016 scientists have attempted to achieve a quantum leap in long-distance quantum communications, building ultra-fast quantum computers and quantum networks, and the UK has now devised a plan to further stimulate quantum physics breakthroughs next year. In 2016 we will pay close attention to the field of physics, involving nuclear energy, nanotechnology, optics, vacuum technology, neutron scattering and astrophysics and other disciplines. Mars march, march moon, into deep space, the key technology is the high-speed heavy rocket ----- roundtrip transportation universe interplanetary spacecraft. The traditional rocket chemical fuel rocket is very important, but in the long run, new heavy rocket research and manufacture is imperative, has become a major breakthrough in the cosmos voyage. No high-speed heavy-haul transport, the human universe will be helpless in the deep space, unable to move. Then there is space radiation, space biomedical engineering, is the key technology. Into the universe, this is a very important problem. Manned flight and cargo or unmanned flight is very different from the door into the depths of the universe locked, and only rely on them to become the key to open the door. Similarly, in-depth study of the universe, life and material particles, but also need this kind of password in order to gradually answer and verify his findings and theoretical doctrine. Nuclear rocket engine mounted in the thrust chamber within the housing of the reactor pressure, cooling nozzle , the working fluid delivery system and control system , including the injection nozzle, converters, transducers, double shielding and the like. In nuclear reactors, nuclear energy into heat, heating working medium. Nuclear rocket engines use low-molecular-weight substances, such as liquid hydrogen, liquid helium and liquid ammonia. Conveying system will work into the cooling tube cooling jacket cooling chamber first, and then into the reactor heating, and finally through the nozzle expansion to accelerate the discharge. The engine control system adjusts the working medium flow and reactor power control nuclear rocket engine is of great significance, as much as the invention of the steam engine of the Industrial Revolution. Many of today's scientific and technical problems, including the number of physical and chemical, such as medical students, such as mathematical problems: Folding Riemann (Riemann) assumptions (world math problems) Some numbers can not be represented as having two smaller number of the special nature of the product, for example, 2, 3, 5, 7 and so on ....... Such numbers are called prime numbers;they play an important role in pure mathematics and its applications. In all natural numbers, this distribution of prime numbers does not follow any regular pattern; however, the German mathematician Riemann (1826 - 1866) observed that the frequency of prime numbers is closely related to the so-called Liman Cai tower function of a carefully constructed z (s) of behavior. The famous Riemann hypothesis assertion, the equation z (s) = 0 for all meaningful solutions are in a straight line. Folding Yang - Mills (Yang-Mills) the existence and quality gap The laws of quantum physics is based on classical mechanics of Newton's laws of the macroscopic world the way to the establishment of the world of elementary particles. . Folding Navier - Existence and Smoothness Stokes Equations The undulating waves followed our boat, which was winding in the middle of the lake, and the turbulent currents followed the flight of our modern jets. Mathematicians and physicists are convinced, whether it is a breeze or turbulent, can be understood by the Navier - Stokes equations solution to them explain and predict. Folding Bayh, and Si Weine through - Dell Conjecture Mathematicians are always such as x ^ 2 + y ^ 2 = z ^ 2 integer solutions to all problems portrayed as algebraic equations fascinated. Euclid once gave a complete solution to this equation, but for more complex equations, it becomes extremely difficult. The main branches of mathematical logic include: model theory, proof theory, recursion theory and axiomatic set theory. Mathematical logic and computer science there are many overlaps between, this is because many computer science pioneer both a mathematician and logician is, as Alan Turing, Alonzo Church and so on. The study of procedural linguistics and semantics is derived from model theory, while program verification is derived from the model testing of model theory. Computer science has contributed to logical research in such areas as automatic verification and automatic discovery of proofs, such as automatic theorem proving and logic programming. (The world's mathematical problems) The New York Times needs two thousand years to think about the top ten physics Natural sciences mystery question (Author George Johnson), I quote: . Their final discussion entitled "dry years crazy," Agenda is to pick them out in the field of 10 of the most bizarre questions. (Quoted from Wikipedia website and related network resources, the same below) 1. Are all the (measurable) dimensionless parameter expressing the principle characteristics of the physical world can be estimated, Or whether there are some contingencies that depend solely on calendars or quantum mechanics and therefore can not be extrapolated Parameters? 2. How quantum gravity help explain the origin of the universe? The two theories of modern physics are the standard model and the general theory of relativity. The former use of quantum mechanics Describe the subatomic particles and the forces they are subject to, while the latter are related to gravity. 3. Proton lifetime how long, how to understand? 4. Is the supersymmetry of nature? If so, how is supersymmetry burst? Many physicists believe that all forces, including gravity, are unified into a single rationale On the request to prove that the two kinds of particles is actually a great difference in the close relationship, this relationship is the That the phenomenon of super-symmetry. 5. Why does the universe appear as a time dimension and three spatial dimensions? 6. Why is the cosmological constant has its own value? Whether it is zero, really constant? Until recently, cosmologists still believed that the universe was expanding at a steady rate. 7. The basic freedom of M-theory (the low-energy limit of M theory is ll-dimensional supergravity, which contains five kinds Compatible superstring) How much? This theory is true description of nature? 8. What is the black hole information paradox solution is? 9. What can explain the physics of elementary particles gravity huge gap between the quality of its typical? 10. Can we quantitatively understand quantum chromodynamics of quarks and gluons constraints, and the quality gap Existence? (Wikipedia sites and related network resources, quoted so far) like scientific problems found in the websites of newspapers and magazines, regardless of the depth and breadth of professional, but also whether it is public or popular professional difficult scientific challenges, there is the outline. Among them: . 1, all the (measurable) expression in the physical world characterized by a dimensionless parameter whether the projections are, in principle, or whether there are some historical or quantum mechanics depends only on infrequent events and therefore is unable to estimate the parameters? 2. How to quantum gravity help explain theorigin of the universe ? The two theories of modern physics are the standard model and the general theory of relativity. The former uses quantum mechanics to describe subatomic particles and the forces they follow, while the latter is the theory of gravity. For a long time, physicists hope combined to give a "theory of everything" -the quantum theory of gravity, in order to better understand the universe, including how the universe with the Big Bang birth naturally means either proton Very stable. 5. Why does the universe appear as a time dimension and three spatial dimensions? 6. Why is the cosmological constant has its own value? Is it zero and is it really constant? . What is the black hole information paradox solution is? 9. What can explain the physics of elementary particles gravity huge gap between the quality of its typical? Can we quantitatively understand quantum chromodynamics existence of quarks and gluons constraints and quality gap? Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a theoretical description of the strong nuclear force. This force is carried by gluons, which combine quarks into particles such as protons and neutrons. According to the theory of quantum chromodynamics, these tiny sub-particles are always constrained. You can not separate a quark or a gluon from a proton, because the farther the distance, the stronger the force, and then quickly pull them back into place. (Network Wikipedia, Wikipedia, encyclopedia and other information) and so on, not one one quote, reproduced here. In the academic journal "Science" 125 anniversary annals, lists so far has not answered 25 scientific issues. "These are" the most difficult to answer, the most challenging, and the most interesting to read, and to inspire the reader to think about 'what the answer is,' "Donald Kennedy, the editor-in-chief of the journal, explains. What constitutes the universe? Over the past decade, scientists have found that the basic materials that make up stars, planets and even the human body make up only five per cent of all matter in the universe.Others are just dark matter and dark energy that scientists have just learned. So what constitutes dark matter, and where does it exist? And what is dark energy? The researchers hope to find the answer. What is the biological basis of consciousness? As early as the 17th century, the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes pointed out that the mind and body are completely separate. After that, other philosophers have been arguing about the nature of consciousness. Today's scientists point out that consciousness is the most characteristic of nerve cell tissue from the inside of the brain. And from this point of view to challenge the Cartesian point of view. The experimental work of decomposing these properties and processes has only just begun. (A human gene structure of human genes are stored in a spiral macromolecule. Now scientists want to know exactly what information is stored in which genes, because each gene consists of about 30,000 information constitute, to a a check, now about 100,000 kinds of genes identified 100 species. Second, the dark matter in the universe according to the new calculations, the universe occurring substances than astronomers to see nine times more, cosmic explosion On order established. However, these substances where, what ingredients, whether it can find a lot of dark matter, is entirely unknown. Third, controlled nuclear fusion with 7 grams of hydrogen fuel to produce 6 tons of coal energy and hydrogen fuel from water extraction, inexhaustible, humans and the environment is only now 1% of the energy now tosolve theoretical problems though, not to solve practical problems. hydrogen fusion on the premise that 100 million-degree heat, how to build to withstand such a hot Fourth furnace, the origin of life American scientists Miller imitate the conditions on Earth 40 million years ago, the results under these conditions to produce amino acids --- part of life, but how to evolve into life remains a mystery, and now computer scientists worked out a program of artificial creatures, in the computer world to observe the "life" in origin, they believe that this is the first step in understanding the structure of life, and future goals to simulate the formation oflife.) How does the Earth's interior work? The revolutionary continental plate-drift theory - that the crust is composed of different plates, plate interaction formed the current surface morphology - the depth involved is not deep enough. "There are still 6,300 km of rocks left behind, and iron beneath the tectonic plates, and their agitation is driving the workings of the heat engines in our planet," wrote Richard A. Kerr. Researchers have discovered that the engine beneath Earth's crust is so intriguing and complex as scientists continue to use more sophisticated equipment to explore the Earth's interior   Are we lonely in the universe? The answer to this question from the mathematical odds is negative: there are hundreds of billions of nebulae in the galaxy where we live, and tens of billions of nebulae in the universe. Scientists have found 150 nearby planets that are orbiting nearby stars. Where is the life on earth, in what way? Recent experiments have shown that the earliest forms of life on earth are likely to be produced on the basis of RNA (RNA) - rather than the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins that are now necessary for all free living organisms. (RNA is similar to DNA, but RNA is a single-stranded molecule, and DNA is a helical double-stranded molecule carrying the genetic information code)   How hot will the world be in the greenhouse? Scientists know that the world is getting hot and humans play a major part in this global climate change. In the face of greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide in the century will be doubled the possibility of growth, the researchers on the earth in the end will become much more difficult to grasp the forecast. Modeling studies have shown that the Earth will be warming at least 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 degrees Celsius) and possibly as much as 19.8 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius). A more accurate prediction of the temperature rise requires a better understanding of the climate system and a more sensitive model study. Demographers predict that the global population will increase to 10 billion by 2100. Can the disaster still be avoided? The next 70 years temperatures rise 2 degrees Celsius may be two or more, telomere loss MD, University of Vienna, Reinhard Shitingdeer that each species has its own "evolutionary clock", it is the replacement of species generation process the ticking, the countdown toward inevitable extinction:.. "the ends of chromosomes each animal has a protective cover, called telomeres without them our chromosomes would become unstable each cell division can not Complete replication of these telomeres, so in our lifetime, telomeres will become shorter and shorter with the cell division. Three million years ago, the earth's forest area decreased, apes from the tree to the ground, in order to survive, the ape learned to walk upright. Walking upright is an important step taken by ape. One million years ago, Australopithecines learned to make simple tools. Half a million years ago, the ape-man had language. Fifty thousand years ago, the clan appeared. The emergence of the clan to the civilized society has taken an important step. Five thousand years ago, mankind had written, then the country appeared. The emergence of the country, to speed up the process of human civilization. . The rapid development of modern science, electricity and the use of steam engines, so that human understanding of the world. The rapid development of modern science, aircraft, nuclear energy, rocket, the emergence of computers, so that the human understanding of the universe . In 1969 a man on the moon, the twenties and thirties of the 21st century, humans to Mars. In these planet immigration was a hundred years later. If humans go farther, flying out of the solar system, to other galaxies, have to have some conditions. The first step, the establishment of space city, human beings have a long experience in space life, to adapt to long space travel. The second step, the speed of the aircraft to be faster, the slowest one tenth of the speed of light has to be achieved. Because the closest to the sun is also a star 4.23 light-years, one-tenth the speed of light aircraft in flight, flying back and forth they have 84 years and 6 months. 22 century, the popularity of the robot. 23 century, human migration to Mars. 24th century humans can travel in the solar system. 25th century large-scale nuclear-powered spacecraft successfully developed on the moon. To that time, agriculture, industry, service industry to achieve a robot modernization, the main human work is research and development, innovation, space exploration. 30 century, the further development of human technology, a series of high-tech anti-matter can not old thinking, highly intelligent engineering, the speed of light aircraft, autonomous robots into people's lives. Nuclear energy is a good energy, but only 2% of the nuclear mass into energy. The combination of anti-matter and matter will be 98% of the mass into energy. 50 century, humans discovered alien. Since then, biological life and machine life become the protagonists of the Milky Way civilization. 50 century to century 100, if the earth did not happen devastating war, then we can imagine human development. By that time, mankind will appear in the Milky Way in one species. After thousands of years, the human outer space in the solar system built a large speed of light aircraft takeoff and landing field, in order to alleviate the space of the solar system traffic pressure. After thousands of years, in the biological life science, machine life science, space high-speed waterways and other aspects of the take significant progress. Years later, humanity mastered space compression technology. 50 years later, humans and now looks quite different. After 100 years, humanity mastered atomic replication, enter the replica in the copying machine, the atomic arrangement data can be copied. Of course, this is only a preliminary study of the forecast, not necessarily very accurate; the contrary, the opposite will be the result. For example, large earthquakes, planetary impacts, temperature increases, plague transmission, tsunami, species extinction, energy crisis, celestial changes, should cause a high degree of human alert. The evolution of human society and the natural history of the universe is very large and complex, is the most spectacular and most thrilling game and battle.Everyone is a chess player, everyone in the interpretation of a variety of colorful chess game, especially for the universe and the human world, like a life and death duel, wins the king defeated Kou. Natural science research in the field of classic works, like the world chess game in the classic bureau handed down immortal. For example, the world famous chess, where the game quoted the following, for readers to appreciate. (Many celebrity politicians, scientists are very fond of chess, extraordinary intelligence, fascinating. Anderson 's Immortal Board White: Anderson Black: Chieselitsky 1851 chess in London Start: Wang Yi abandoned soldiers 1. E2-e4 E7-e5 2. F2-f4 E5 × f4 3. Like f1-c4 After d8-h4 + 4. Wang e1-f1 B7-b5 5. Like c4 × b5 Horse g8-f6 6. G1-f3 After h4-h6 7. Soldiers d2-d3 Horse f6-h5 8. Horse f3-h4 After h6-g5 9. Horse h4-f5 C7-c6 10. G2-g4 Horse h5-f6 11. Vehicle h1-g1 C6 × b5 12. The soldiers h2-h4 After g5-f6 13 soldiers h4-h5 After g6-g5 14. After d1-f3 Horse f6-g8 15. like c1 × f4 After g5-f6 16. Horses b1-c3 Like f8-c5 17. Horses c3-d5 After f6 × b2 18. Like f4-d6 After b2 × a1 + 19. Wang f1-e2 Like c5 × g1 20. Bing e4-e5 Horse b8-a6 21. Ma f5 × g7 + King e8-d8 22. Post f3-f6 + Horse g8 × f6 23. Like d6-e7 # King King referred to as K Queen Q for short Castle Rook referred to as R Bishop Bishop Knight Knight for short N Soldier Pawn referred to as P Mankind in the conquest of nature and transformation of the world, in the face of many difficulties, the need for chess knights of the wisdom and courage to gradually progressive, successful victory. The world and the universe is a tremendous victory or defeat of the chessboard, we start the game, control the chess game, to win. Mathematical game theory, is indeed the case. (1) the players: in a competition or game (2) Policy: inning game, each player has to select a complete practical program of action, (3) gains and losses: a Board Game finale the result is called the pros and cons. (4) for the game participants, there is a game results . (5) relates to the equalizer the game: (2) Policy (3) gains and losses: the results of the game when the outcome of a game known as the pros and cons. (4) for the game participants, there is a game results . (5) Game comes to equilibrium in 1928, von Neumann proved that the basic principles of game theory of John Forbes Nash (John Forbes Nash Jr) use fixed point theorem to prove the existence of equilibrium point for game theory in general Of the lay a solid foundation. Nash's seminal paper "n person game equilibrium point" (1950), " non-cooperative game " (1951), etc., are given Nash equilibrium concept and equilibrium existence theorems Game theory is an important branch of modern mathematics, the initial study chess game, after the push and wide, economic, military, science and technology, engineering and other fields. Therefore, the senior chess masters can not learn some game theory, in fact a lot of international chess masters themselves are mathematicians or mathematical logicians, scientists and so on. Botevic Nick, Lasker, You Wei, who meet this standard. Lasker (Emanuel Lasker, 1868-1941) German players. The second in the history of chess world champion (1984-1921 years time holding the title). Philosopher, mathematician.11-year-old brother by the church board games. 1889 became the German Masters. Botvinnik (Mikhai Botvinnik, 1911-1995) Soviet chess player. Electrical technical expert. Sixth world champion in the history of chess (holding the title for the 1948-1957period, the 1958-1960 years, 1961/63). He received his Masters title at the age of 16. Euwe (Machgielia Euwe, 1901-1981) Dutch players. Doctor of Mathematics. Fifth world champion in the history of chess (holding the title for the 1935-1937 period), the FIDE President (1970-1978 term of years). Study of natural universe and human society, the game really needs the art. For example, human space activities, landing and transformation of Mars, transformation of the moon, into the Jupiter satellite, into the Milky Way, is the greatest and most powerful game wrestling. The march of the universe, the transformation of Mars Moon, is to turn around the great cause, is an epoch-making initiative, is the history of mankind and the natural universe the greatest and most glorious and most difficult feat and career. In this game of life and death, despite the difficulties and obstacles, we firmly believe that human beings must rely on the wisdom and courage and strength will gradually win. The history of the universe and the structure of the universe and the universe through the beginning, the generation and disappearance of particles and matter, the evolution of the origin of species and life, the three closely related, but very different. The universe and matter are inseparable, of course, species and life are closely linked but very different. The universe and material breed species, only in the complete species conditions and other conditions have the case of life can produce or even evolve into advanced wisdom of life. Species and material are not absolutely equal, life and wisdom of animals is not synonymous, the same, the universe is not simply a matter of space, which is too narrow definition. The birth or destruction of the universe is not absolutely equal to the birth and destruction of matter. Although there is a great difference between the concept of natural science and the study of natural philosophy and philosophy, there is no doubt that the substance, by its very nature, no matter how it changes, The material does not disappear; the destruction of the universe does not mean that the whole material is gone. Universe - matter, matter - the universe, not simply pure pure philosophical proposition, but the basic principles of the natural universe. Material is inseparable from the universe, the universe can not do without material, this is one thing; but the material is not equal to the universe, the universe is not absolutely equal to the material. This is the second. In other words, the universe and matter are two concepts, not to be confused. There is no material cosmos does not exist, there is no cosmic material also does not exist. It does not need to assume that the physical or philosophical assumptions, this is the most delicate and natural science essence of the most mysterious special value implicit - implicit theorem. From here, the universe, life, matter and species, particles, it is relatively easy to understand and research, and then get a deeper answer or interpretation. Of course, this is not the whole study, but after all, is a useful key, useful chess, worthy of study. There is no need for purely logical reasoning. In short, the universe is generalized. The material is narrow. Conversely, the material is generalized, and the universe is narrow. The two are close and separate, separated and close, but not absolutely synonymous with the same. Modern society, science and technology is essential, has been known to mankind. In addition, is the philosophy, religion, social science research and writing. Especially in today's world, highly developed, such as game theory, philosophy, religion, sociology, economics, military science, anthropology, literature, linguistics, political science, journalism, history, education, psychology, diplomacy, law, futurology, art, etc. disciplines and professional continuous extension and differentiation, aggregation, increasingly powerful interdisciplinary, cross ARTS aND TECHNOLOGY combination of human society into the information age and developed an unprecedented development, knowledge wisdom intelligence peak times . Pure and simple science and technology philosophy and social science impossible achievements of the world, only a combination of both, to flashing a dazzling aura. In fact, human history is nothing more than science and technology, natural sciences, philosophy and social sciences, religion, culture and art history combined. For example, aerospace engineering, human landing on Mars, the world nuclear war, the planet big bang, international politics, world economy, international trade, world order, earth resources, energy development, polar development, moon development, economic competition, technological competition, knowledge big Bang, philosophical thought, social thought, religious development and change, technical and economic, the human world epistemology, the human world of economic theory and economic models, private ownership and public ownership, democracy development and evolution models, markets and trade, the future evolution of the trend of world development and trends, war and peace, competition and compromise, idealism and realism, ultra-idealism and realism, extreme, extremism, vulgar Marxism and centrism, theism and pantheism, atheism, the world leader with hegemony, global and semi-globalization, anti-globalization, populism and nationalism, the essence of Marxism, diversity and variety of socialism, capitalism and socialism, and the capital market Theory, East and West, the East and the West on the theory, single World-class bipolar world and a multipolar world, competition and sharing, the New World and the New World idealism dominant doctrine, the Earth and the universe revolutionary revolution, the outcome of the evolution of the world and the universe evolution ending, human consciousness and rational change, social planet Earth society. . . . . . All these, and so forth. Over time, such questions will continue to emerge and constantly refurbished.However, the basic values ​​and no absolute change or variation. Natural, human needs change constantly reform and innovation. • liberalism, conservatism, democracy and socialism, Marxism, nationalism Trend First of all in terms of subject area of social thought can be expressed as political thought, economic trends, cultural trends, philosophy and other ideologies. Specific to various fields, such as political liberalism and political conservatism, and other democratic socialism is a political thoughts; such as economic liberalism and state interventionism, monetarist, etc. belong to the socialist market economic thoughts; such as rationalism, irrationalism, abstract, etc. to cultural trends; such as existentialism, structuralism, post- modern Marxist philosophy, etc. to Trend. Liberalism, conservatism, democracy and socialism, isolationism, populism, nationalism Trend Capitalism, crisis and " Great Refusal " - critical theory, social movements and utopian imagination feminism, critical theory of modernity and the Nordic model: capitalism, socialism or otherwise? Neural Aesthetics: fusion experiments aesthetics and cognitive neuroscience from city to city - Urban Anthropology Research Review Western comparative law in New Romanticism - Heidegger's "Being and Time" - Gadamer's "Truth and Method" logic of weighing scales Philosophy - Quine "From a logical point of view" - Oscar Order "How to Do Things with Words," " causal chain " Relations Theory and Its proposed name and inevitability Theory - Kripke "Naming and Necessity of" scientific philosophy " lost it as " - Feyerabend, "Against Method" " Western Marxism Bible " - Lukacs' History and Class Consciousness "structure : the unconscious foundation of cultural phenomena - Levi Strauss' Structural Anthropology "political science Introduction Cornerstone Contemporary Western Politics - Easton "political system - political science health research" Comparative analysis of the new political framework - Almond other "Comparative Politics" basic elements of social control : the authority, exchange and persuasion - New Horizons Lindblom "Politics and Market" political science : economic analysis of politics in the field of New Development - Buchanan "free market and the state" - Sartori "Theory of Democracy" Adjustment of the principle of social justice, basic structure - Rawls' Theory of Justice " - Nozick's" Anarchy State and Utopia " Descartes' First Meditation Philosophy "Pascal" Pensees " Hume" the study of human reason " " Prolegomena "Kant and Hegel" Phenomenology of Mind " Wonderful Digest - Gadamer "Truth and Method" logic of weighing scales Philosophy - Quine "From a logical point of view." - Oscar Order "How to Do Things with Words" - Kripke "Naming and Necessity of" scientific philosophy . - Feyerabend, "Against Method" " Western Marxism Bible " - Lukacs' History and Class Consciousness "structure : the unconscious foundation of cultural phenomena - Levi Strauss' Structural Anthropology "political science Introduction Cornerstone Contemporary Western Politics - Easton "political system - political science health research" Comparative analysis of the new political framework - Almond other "Comparative Politics" basic elements of social control : the authority, exchange and persuasion - New Horizons Lindblom "Politics and Market" political science : economic analysis of politics in the field of New Development - Buchanan "free market and the state." - Sartori "Theory of Democracy" Adjustment of basic principles of justice social structure - Rawls' Theory of Justice " - Nozick's "Anarchy State and Utopia" Mind and World[US] John McDowell2006-05-31 Science and Culture[US] Joseph A Jiaxi2006-10-18 From a logical point of view[US] WVO Quine2007-02-28 Meaning and End of Religion[Plus] Wilfred Cantwell Smith2005-06-13 LiteratureDissemination of bias[Plus] Harold Innis2003-06-30 A free and responsible press[US] Press Freedom Committee2004-08-30 2004-12-08 Communication and Social Influence[Method] Gabriel Tarde2005-06-30 Four Theories of the media[US] Frederick · S · Siebert, etc.2008-03-25 2008-04-03 Audience analysisDennis McGuire2006-03-31 Principles of Semiotics[Method] Roland Barthes2008-01-14 Neo classFormation of personal - my Psychotherapy[US] · R · Carl Rogers2004-07-26 Client-centered therapy - Practice, Theory and Application[US] Carl Rogers2004-10-30 A Short History of Nearly Everything[US] Ken Wilber2006-09-27 Motivation and Personality (third edition)[US] Abraham Maslow2007-04-30 Legal categoryWild thinking[Method] Claude Levi - Straw2006-01-31 No Happy economy[US] Ti Boer · Esposito Minkowski2008-06-16 Freedom: the 19th century French public intellectual Grand[Method] Michel Wei Nuoke2006-05-19 Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision (revised edition)[US] Deborah Stone2006-12-20 Range of administrative law[New Zealand] Michael Taggart2006-09-15 Constitutional interpretation: the meaning of the text, the original intent and Judicial Review[US] · E · Keith Whittington with2006-12-21 Outline of the Criminal Code (pandect,) (third edition)[Date] Otsuka Ren2003-10-20 After the rights revolution: Restructure State Regulation[US] Keith · R · Sunstein2008-12-08 Regulation: Legal Form and Economic Theory[English] Anthony Ao Gesi2008-11-26 British criminal proceedings[English] John Springer Lake2006-12-31 Subjects of criminal law, criminal monograph (New Second Edition)[Date] Otani real2008-01-30 2007-03-31 US criminal court proceedings[US] Ellen Howe Chase Taylor2002-01-22 Economy classPolitical Economy: Economic policy interpretationT. Persson G. Tabei Rini2007-01-01 Development as FreedomAmartya Sen2002-07-05 Production and distribution of knowledge in the United StatesFritz Machlup2007-09-30 Economic policy: Perspective of Transaction Cost PoliticsAvinash Dixit · K ·2004-01-16 Classic Game Theory[US] · W · Harold Kuhn2004-12-06 History of Economic Thought: London School of Economics Lecture[English] Lionel Robbins2008-11-05 Economic growth in the moral senseBenjamin Friedman2008-09-27 Experimental study of the interaction strategy - Behavioral Game[US] Colin Kai Mole2006-04-30 Market volatilityRobert Shiller2007-05-31 Economics is how to remember the past are: Social Sciences History Characteristics problem· M · Jeffrey Hodgson2008-01-18 Inflation, unemployment and monetary policyRobert Solow, etc. · M ·2004-02-28 Determinants of economic growth: empirical cross-country[US] Robert · J · Barrow2004-09-16 Management classOrganizational learning, performance and change - Introduction to Human Resource Development StrategyJerry · W · Gilley, etc.2006-05-31 Management Accounting ResearchChristopher Chapman, etc.2006-10-18 Systems thinking - creative holism adapted managers[English] Michael Jackson · C ·2007-02-28 The new corporate culture - to regain the vitality of the workplaceTerence · E · Deere etc.2005-06-13 History of Management Thought (Fifth Edition)Daniel · A · Rennes2005-06-13 Contemporary Accounting Research: Review and CommentsSL Kothari, etc.2005-06-13 Financial Reporting: Accounting RevolutionWilliam · H · Beaver2005-06-13 Positive accounting theoryRoss · L · Watts, etc.2008-01-05 There are many world classics, dizzying, never tire of reading, for example: Durkheim: "Sociological Research Methodology" (1895 years ) Durkheim: "Division of Labor" (1893 years ) Weber: "Economy and Society" (1921-1922 years ) Cooley: "Human Nature and society order " (1902 Nian ) Schutz:" the phenomenon of the social world of science " (1932 Nian ) Mead:" mind, self and society " (1934 Nian ) Lukacs:" history and class consciousness " (1923 Nian ) Horkheimer Mo: "Critical theory" (1968 Nian ) Marcuse: "Barber of revolution" (1941 Nian ) Parsons: "structure of Social action" (1937 Nian ) Parsons: "Social system" (1951 Nian ) Pa Parsons and Smelser: "economy and society" (1956 Nian ) Merton: "Social theory and Social structure" (1949 Nian ) Mills: "power elite" (1956 Nian ) Dahrendorf: "industrial society the class and class conflict " (1959 Nian ) Coser:" functions of Social conflicts " (1956 Nian ) Polonsky:" power and privilege: Social stratification theory " (1966 Nian ) Homans:" Social behavior : its basic form " (1961 Nian ) Homans:" Social Science nature " (1967 Nian ) Broughton:" social life of exchange and power " (1964 Nian ) Broughton:" inequality and heterogeneity " (1977 Nian ) Blumer:" interaction of the image: perspectives and methods " (1969 Nian ) Goffman:" daily life presents itself " (1959 Nian ) Garfinkel:" Research methods of ordinary people. " (1967 Nian ) Berger and Luckmann: "Construction of social entities" (1967 Nian ) Habermas: "understanding and human purport" (1968 Nian ) Adorno: "German sociology of positivism contention · Introduction " (1969 Nian ) Gu Waldner:" Western Sociology facing crisis " (1970 Nian ) Buckley:" Sociology and modern systems Theory " (1965 Nian ) Collins:" Sociology of conflict: towards a interpretation of science " (1975 Nian ) Alexander:" logic of sociological theory " (1983 Nian ) Alexander et al:" Micro and macro coupling " (1987) Luhmann:" social divide " (1982 Nian ) Archer:" culture and Subjectivity: cultural position in social theory " (1988 Nian ) Giddens:" Social Construction " (1984 Nian ) Habermas:" communicative action theory " (1981 Nian ) Habermas:" between facts and norms " (1996 Nian ) Coleman:" Social theory basis " (1990 Nian ) Bourdieu:" the logic of practice " (1980 Nian ) Bourdieu and Huakang De:" reflexive sociology guide " (1992 Nian ) Elias:" process of Civilization " (1939 Nian ) Elias:" semiotics " (1991 Nian ) described above, a wide variety of academic works of classic tomes many worth reading read. Of course, any doctrine theory and practice of human society must be combined in order to identify the authenticity of the pros and cons. Only through broad practice of millions of people and be successful. In particular, major issues need to be addressed: ################################################## ############################### ( 1 ) the world the basic rules of physical survival of human society: economy, wealth mode, mode of production, capital mode ( 2 ) the human brain as a senior intelligence animal higher nervous activity of human epistemology of human rationality of Human Consciousness Human Methodology ( 3 ) the essence of human society development model of human social evolution model of the human world or the end of the next mutation cosmopolitanism ( 4 ) Nature of the universe ---- the difference between history and future of the universe romanticism, realism, the doctrine of the end ( 5 ) the universe - matter particles - species - life - human wisdom gene revolution, the Earth revolution, social change, cosmic revolution, the technological revolution ( 6 ) the limitations of human history ----------- history-extensive nature of the universe nature of the universe in terms of its very nature, the eternal nature of the unconscious nature; and the history of human society, even if great then at best, but also a brilliant drop in the ocean. Human society, especially senior human wisdom perhaps the entire natural history of the universe is the most important one or a few episodes, may be able to accompany the whole story of the universe constantly open up new world of its own to exist, will probably occur as ten million destruction and extinction of species and Like the tragic demise of life disappear. Any doctrine and theory here is no fundamental -------- because the great human but also charge its natural history program and the process of natural history of the universe naturally occurring ------ modern new natural structure dimerization classical structuralism complex purification. ( 7 ) of the universe - particle - matter of human species and life history into modeling, inversion.

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