386. HLJ2 Younger Harriet Lane(PID:50996890935) Source
posted by Jim Surkamp alias Jim Surkamp on Wednesday 17th of March 2021 10:00:53 PM
Made possible by the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu) to encourage fact-based, dispassionate investigation, inquiry and scholarship. All views and sentiments portrayed in the videos and posts of civilwarscholars.com, however commendable in some instances, do not in any way reflect the 21st century, modern day politics of the University. SUMMARY The friendship between Harriet Lane, her Uncle (and 15h President) James Buchanan with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the young future king 18-year old Prince of Wales played a key role in the Queen’s proclamation of neutrality in May, 1861 at the outset of the Civil War that provided some check on a strong sentiment among the commercial classes in England to recognize the Confederacy. These friendships began between 1853-1856 when Harriet and her uncle (whom she called “Nunc” in private, when he was made the ambassador from the U.S. to the Court of St. James. Then when Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in September, 1862 the Confederacy was condemned by England, France and Russia. The Sweet Shoppe building in Shepherdstown is also known as the Lane building because Harriet’s family – at one time herself – owned it. This quite remarkable person called by Frank Leslie’s illustrated weekly as our original “First Lady” in 1860, cemented, shall we say, strong friendship not only with the Queen, but also the young Prince of Wales when she accompanied when he came to the United States in July-October, 1860 as war clouds gathered and soon burst. NOTE: 1 asterisk (*) denotes research source; 2 asterisks (**) denotes text or script; 3 asterisks (***) denotes music and sound effects in the corresponding video. VIDEO: Harriet Lane America's Original First Lady by Jim Surkamp TRT: 1:09:34 segment 1:05:49-1:09:34 www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0NBsXgs6fI&t=1874s CORRECTION at 1:06:28 The images of Harriet's sons are reversed: sitting is James Buchanan Johnston, standing is Henry Elliot Johnston Jr. POST: Harriet Lane – the “Original First Lady” by Jim Surkamp – Conclusion and References civilwarscholars.com/2020/02/harriet-lane-the-original-fi... BEGIN: 369. Harriet Lane whitehousehistory.org 2 December 1998 Web. 15 January 2020 www.whitehousehistory.org/bios/harriet-lane ** All through her life Harriet campaigned for causes for the good. 369a. Montage four images scythe wipe Harriet husband two sons 369b. Harriet, husband, one son 369c. Harriet, husband 369d. Harriet ** In the eighteen years following the great American tragedy, Harriet - now a private citizen loved and lost four of her dearest inspirations ** Nunc, 370. James Buchanan, Brady National Photographic Gallery, National Archives archives.gov www.archives.gov/nhprc/projects/catalog/james-buchanan date of death at Wheatland June 1, 1868 * google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 25 January 2020 www.google.com/maps/uv?hl=en&pb=!1s0x89c62442da3088d5...(James%20Buchanan%20House)%20-%20Google%20Search!15sCAQ&imagekey=!1e10!2sAF1QipO-EiYAvZQlnWauRTqe_FLL5CIk3X3Hx8KSgyTY&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjEu_vzhq7nAhXkl3IEHWrkCRoQoiowC3oECBEQBg * wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 30 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 2 February 2020 www.findagrave.com/memorial/143/james-buchanan www.findagrave.com/memorial/6525896/james-buchanan-johnston FIX SOURCE CHECK ADD SWITCH 371. James Buchanan Johnston added by Tom Nichols Birth Nov 2 1866 Death 25 Mar 1881 (aged 14) findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 2 February 2020 www.findagrave.com/memorial/6525896/james-buchanan-johnst... & James Buchanan Johnston, Harriet Lane's first son. (stalbanschool.org) ** both her two young sons James Buchanan Johnston FIX SOURCE CHECK ADD SWITCH 372. Henry Elliot Johnston Jr. (born 1 September 1869, died 30 October 1882) findagrave.com www.findagrave.com/memorial/6525910/henry-elliot-johnston... ** and Henry Elliot Johnston Jr. (born 1 September 1869, died 30 October 1882) ** Both sons were affected by a sudden, unknown illness that left both boys physically impaired with hearts weakened by rheumatic feve 373. Harriet Lane Johnston 1870s (Frick Reference Library) ** Harriet and her husband Henry had widely sought medical advice and treatment, to no avail. One son died at home in 1881, and the other died the following year; they were fifteen and twelve years old. 374. Henry Elliot Johnston Sr. by Edward Bowers - 1859 Birth 30 Jun 1831 Death 5 May 1884 (aged 52) portraitcollection.jhmi.edu 8 March 2015 Web. 1 February 2020 portraitcollection.jhmi.edu/portraits/johnston-henry-elliot ** Then Henry, 375. Seated at center with hat, Harriet Lane with friends at Bedford Springs, including her future husband Henry Elliott Johnston, standing. (Lancaster Historical Society) firstladies.org www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biograph... ** who had patiently courted her in the 1850s and 1860s before they married, died in 1884 at the age of fifty two 376. marble bust Smithsonian Institution image added by Tom Nichols findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 2 February 2020https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/6525843/henry-elliot-johnston *** 1:07:17 Beauties I by Cam Millar over images 377-381 to 1:08:20 377. Montage 377a. younger Harriet Lane from the James Buchanan Museum at Wheatland in Lancaster, Pennsylvania taken by Alex Tucker Nov., 2018 377b. Convent Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 25 January 2020 www.google.com/maps/uv?hl=en&pb=!1s0x89b7b638128ed6ab... ** leaving her with one wellspring of inspiration and the first she ever had known from her days at the The Georgetown Visitation Academy, the school which had the greatest impact on her. 378a. St. Francis de Sales Be who you are and be that well. Photographic reproduction of a portrait of St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622), painted in 1606 by Etienne Martellange, 378b. Nothing is so strong as gentleness 378c. Have patience with all things 378d. But, first of all with yourself ** and the influence of St. Francis de Sales guidance: Be who you are and be that well. Nothing is so strong as gentleness, nothing so gentle as real strength. Have patience with all things, But, first of all with yourself. * wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 30 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_de_Sales 379. Harriet Lane Johnston portraitcollection.jhmi.edu 8 March 2015 Web. 1 February 2020 portraitcollection.jhmi.edu/portraits/johnston-harriet-lane2 ** She fashioned her grief into blessings to others 380. Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children entrance researchgate.net www.researchgate.net/figure/The-Harriet-Lane-Home-October... 381. Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children hopkinsmedicine.org www.hopkinsmedicine.org/johns-hopkins-childrens-center/he... 381a. with text 381b. with text 381c. with text Upon Harriet’s death nearly twenty years later, her estate provided a sum of over $400,000 to establish the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children as a memorial to the Johnstons' two sons. * In October 1912, the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children officially opened. It was the first children’s clinic in the United States associated with a medical school. Eventually treating over 60,000 children a year, the Harriet Lane Home became a pioneer treatment, teaching, and research clinic. It was closed in 1972. portraitcollection.jhmi.edu 8 March 2015 Web. 1 February 2020 portraitcollection.jhmi.edu/portraits/johnston-harriet-lane2 * Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children June 2, 2018 By Nancy Sheads in Baltimore City, Hospitals Founded: 1912 Closed: 1972 Location: 5-story building on the grounds of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD mdhistoryonline.net mdhistoryonline.net/2018/06/02/h261/ *** 1:08:20 murphy by vandaliariver.com over images 382-388 to 1:09:34 382. National Gallery Satellite image of National Gallery of Art grounds and surrounding streets (2002) Description: Map of National Gallery of Art grounds, Washington, D.C. Date Satellite image taken April 26, 2002 Source USGS satellite image Author USGS, cropped and labelled by Postdlf wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Gallery_of_Art#/media/File... ** She is largely responsible for getting the ball rolling - donating her own collection - to successfully jump-start the first iteration of our beloved National Gallery of Art on the Mall, 382a. The Crystal Palace from the northeast during the Great Exhibition of 1851. Date 1852 Source Dickinsons' comprehensive pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851 Author Dickinson Brothers commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 5 January 2020 commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Palace_from_the_n... ** reminiscent of the other "People's Palace" from 1850s London. * Journal Article Harriet Lane Johnston and the Formation of a National Gallery of Art Homer T. Rosenberger Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. Vol. 69/70, The 47th separately bound book (1969/1970), pp. 399-442 Published by: Historical Society of Washington, D.C. www.jstor.org/stable/40067721 Page Count: 44 www.jstor.org/stable/40067721?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents 383. St Albans School 383a. Harriet Lane Johnston 1898 Artist: Unidentified Date: ca. 1898 Location: Not on view Dimensions: sheet and image: 9 1/4 x 6 in. (23.4 x 15.1 cm.) Copyright: Smithsonian American Art Museum Bequest of Harriet Lane Johnston americanart.si.edu americanart.si.edu/artwork/harriet-lane-johnston-24797 383b. Our Founder: Harriet Lane Johnston stalbansschool.org www.stalbansschool.org/about/history/our-founder-harriet-... 383c. Harriet Lane Johnston Building St. Albans St. Albans School - Lane Johnston Building google.com/maps www.google.com/maps/uv?hl=en&pb=!1s0x89b7b6271bf97e85... 383d. Harriet Lane Johnston between 1855-1865 Credit line: Brady-Handy photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Purchase; Alice H. Cox and Mary H. Evans; 1954. loc.gov www.loc.gov/item/2017896608/ ** When she died July 3rd, 1903, the wealth she controlled from her happy but short marriage was used to establish the St. Albans School 384. Cameo of Harriet Lane Johnston in later life fineartamerica.com fineartamerica.com/featured/1-harriet-lane-first-lady-sci... ** She died recognized by a grateful many. 385. Our Founder: Harriet Lane Johnston stalbansschool.org www.stalbansschool.org/about/history/our-founder-harriet-... ** biographer Milton Stern wrote "She had this air about her -- her posture, her voice, the way she carried herself. She was not reserved, and she was extremely intelligent. Today a woman of her stature would probably be a senator or candidate for president." post-gazette.com 14 January 1998 Web. 14 January 2020 www.post-gazette.com/life/lifestyle/2006/12/05/The-first-... * The art collection of former first lady Harriet Lane Johnston, President James Buchanan's niece, resides in the Smithsonian American Art Museum. This story as originally published Dec. 5, 2006 said she had bequeathed the collection to the National Gallery of Art, which is what the museum was called at the time. The name was changed after Pittsburgher Andrew Mellon's gift established the current National Gallery of Art in 1937. 386. Younger Harriet Lane Lincoln National Collection Description: 6 3/4 x 3 3/8 inch stereocard, Harriet Lane Johnston, head and torso lincolncollection.org www.lincolncollection.org/search/results/item/?q=stereoca... 387. HLC with signature 387a. HLJ signature explorefranklincountypa.com www.explorefranklincountypa.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/1... 387b. HLJ flowers best Harriet Lane, Niece of US President James Buchanan Date: 22 February 2010, 19:43 (UTC) Source: Harriet_Lane.jpg commons.wikimedia.org commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harriet_Lane-cropped.jpg The Original First Lady with a special spark. 388. marble bust of Harriet Lane Johnston si.edu www.si.edu/object/saam_1994.72?width=85%25&height=85%... Sources: From this dazzling career abroad, she came back to her native land, to preside over the President's House. She became the supreme lady of the gayest administration which has marked the government of the United States. Societies, ships of war, neck-ties were named after her. Men, gifted and great, from foreign lands and in her own, sought her hand in marriage. Such cumulated pleasures and honors probably were never heaped upon any other one young woman of the United States. . . . Neither he nor her country ever suffered from any conversational lapse of hers, which, in a day so rife with passion and injustice, is saying much. Ames, Mary Clemmer. (1874). Ten Years in Washington: Life and Scenes in the National Capital, As a Women Sees Them." Hartford, CT: A.D. Worthington & Co. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 pp. 234-235 books.google.com/books?id=9tA9_FN5OTsC&pg=PA233&l... In 1858, Lane received a letter from a Native American leader of Wisconsin's Chippewa tribe asking her help in removing an Indian Affairs agent who introduced liquor for sale Nancy Hendricks, p. 118 The Prince of Wales was entertained at the White House, who presented his portrait to Mr. Buchanan and a set of valuable engravings to Miss Lane, as “a slight mark of his grateful recollection of the hospitable reception and agreeable visit at the White House.”- Ames p. 235. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 books.google.com/books?id=9tA9_FN5OTsC&pg=PA233&l... "A widely publicized incident during the Prince of Wales visits when Lane scored a victory over he Prince in an early form of bowling ten pins. Not only were women discouraged from physical activities as tht eime, it was shocking to compete with a male, much less to win Hendricks p. 120 books.google.com books.google.com/books?id=KqeXCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA119&l... www.jstor.org/stable/40067721?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Thomas P. Rossiter, Visit of the Prince of Wales, President Buchanan, and Dignitaries to the Tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon, October 1860, 1861, oil on canvas, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Bequest of Harriet Lane Johnston, 1906.9.18 commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 5 January 2020 commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Smithsonian-Rossiter-Visi... THE PRINCE AT WASHINGTON ... with Miss Lane, the Prince spent a couple of hours at Miss Smith’s institute for young ladies, where he indulged in a game at tenpins. In the evening the President entortained the diplomatic corps and a large party at dinner, and Miss Lane held a reception ... Published: Saturday 20 October 1860 Newspaper: Illustrated London News County: London, England archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 p. 363 archive.org/details/illustratedlondov37lond/page/n362 p. 365 (article) archive.org/details/illustratedlondov37lond/page/n367 archive.org/details/illustratedlondov37lond/page/n2 Queen Victoria’s original intention was to dispatch her son simply to visit England’s western possessions in Canada and inaugurate the opening of the Victoria Bridge in Montreal. Yet, upon receipt of a letter from President Buchanan, the queen was pleased to extend the prince’s visit to the United States. Both Buchanan’s letter to the queen and her positive reply were printed in American newspapers, and their words illustrate the strong, personal bond felt between the two rulers. On June 4, 1860, President Buchanan wrote: “I need not say how happy I should be to give him [the Prince of Wales] a cordial welcome to Washington. You may well be assured that everywhere in this country he will be greeted by the American people in such a manner as cannot fail to prove gratifying to Your Majesty.” In a similar style, the queen replied that the prince would, with great pleasure, be received at the White House. “He will thus be able, at the same time, to mark the respect which he entertains for the Chief Magistrate of a great and friendly State and kindred nation.” The queen indicated that Prince Albert Edward would drop all royal title and travel officially incognito under the name whitehousehistory.org 2 December 1998 Web. 15 January 2020 Journal Article Reannealing of the Heart Ties: The Rhetoric of Anglo-American Kinship and the Politics of Reconciliation in the Prince of Wales's 1860 Tour SKYE MONTGOMERY Journal of the Civil War Era Vol. 6, No. 2 (JUNE 2016), pp. 193-219 Miss Harriet Lane, the Presiding First Lady of the White House Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper1860-03-31 archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 archive.org/details/franklesliesillu00lesl/page/n202/mode... In 1866, Miss Lane was married, at Wheatland, to Mr. Henry Elliott Johnston of Baltimore, a gentleman who had held her affections for many years. The congenial pair now abide in their luxurious home in Baltimore, and in private life, as wife and mother, she is as beautiful and more beloved than when, as Miss Lane, she was the proud lady of the President's House. - Ames p. 235. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 books.google.com/books?id=9tA9_FN5OTsC&pg=PA233&l... * JOURNAL ARTICLE Harriet Lane Johnston and the Formation of a National Gallery of Art Homer T. Rosenberger Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. Vol. 69/70, The 47th separately bound book (1969/1970), pp. 399-442 Published by: Historical Society of Washington, D.C. jstor.org www.jstor.org/stable/40067721 Page Count: 44 ACCESSED www.jstor.org/stable/40067721?read-now=1&seq=1#metada... www.jstor.org/stable/40067721?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Thomas P. Rossiter, Visit of the Prince of Wales, President Buchanan, and Dignitaries to the Tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon, October 1860, 1861, oil on canvas, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Bequest of Harriet Lane Johnston, 1906.9.18 americanart.si.edu americanart.si.edu/artwork/visit-prince-wales-president-b... THE PRINCE AT WASHINGTON ... with Miss Lane, the Prince spent a couple of hours at Miss Smith’s institute for young ladies, where he indulged in a game at tenpins. In the evening the President entortained the diplomatic corps and a large party at dinner, and Miss Lane held a reception ... Published: Saturday 20 October 1860 Newspaper: Illustrated London News County: London, England Harper's Weekly Oct. 13, 1860 p. 644 babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 5 January 2020 babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015006963360&vie... Journal Article Reannealing of the Heart Ties: The Rhetoric of Anglo-American Kinship and the Politics of Reconciliation in the Prince of Wales's 1860 Tour SKYE MONTGOMERY Journal of the Civil War Era Vol. 6, No. 2 (JUNE 2016), pp. 193-219 Miss Harriet Lane, the Presiding First Lady of the White House Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper1860-03-31 archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 archive.org/details/franklesliesillu00lesl/page/n202/mode... Frank Leslie image of HLJ artsandculture.google.com/asset/miss-harriet-lane-the-pre... JOURNAL ARTICLE Harriet Lane, First Lady: Hostess Extraordinary in Difficult Times Homer T. Rosenberger Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. Vol. 66/68, The 46th separately bound book (1966/1968), pp. 102-153 Published by: Historical Society of Washington, D.C. www.jstor.org/stable/40067251 Page Count: 52 Her will of 1895, as modified by two codicils, one of 1899 and the other dated only a few months before her death, left $300,000 to the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia to establish a school for boys—“in loving memory of our sons.” Half the money was to be used for the school building, to be “begun” within six months after the Cathedral Foundation received the bequest and to be known as the Lane-Johnston Building. The other half was to be invested for the maintenance of the school. The will added, “It is my wish that the said school shall be conducted and the said fund applied to provide specially for the free maintenance, education and training of choirboys, primarily for those in the service of the Cathedral.” stalbansschool.org www.stalbansschool.org/about/history/our-founder-harriet-... Buchanan, James. (1910). "The Works of James Buchanan, Vol. collected and edited by John Bassett Moore Vol. XI 1800-1868. Philadelpha & London: J. P. Lippincott Co. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 archive.org/details/DKC0085/page/n2 p. 3 Buchanan Queen Victoria exchange re Prince of Wales visit to the United States archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 archive.org/details/DKC0085/page/n23 HLJ JB Victorian 1860-1.png * wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 5 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crystal_Palace Harriet wrote on May 4th her confidant Lily Macalester: You have heard, dear Lily, of our long & boisterous voyage. Everything is as comfortable and agreeable as possible, about my home - all things promise to me a pleasant visit. After five days in the Old Country Harriet had some sharp opinions on the sub-standard caliber of Lord-ly honored public speakers: Last evening we went to a Literary Club dinner - the ladies of course in the gallery. I was disappointed in the speaking - we had expected several distinguished speakers but only heard Lord Mahon, & Lord Stanley both men of talent. - Lord Mahon was the best speaker at the table - but he talked too much, and said too little. Lord Stanley talked a great deal, and said nothing. I was gratified to see the manner of conducting a public dinner here, but without doubt, our people are more prompt and eloquent - in fact, I have seen no improvements upon our country. & Friday 5. I was charmed at the Opera last night. Beethoven’s Fidelio was the piece. I heard the great Cravelli, and think her superb - the music is grand & effective. Mr. Peabody’s box is opposite the Queen’s - she, Prince Albert, & two of the children were there. Mr P. is very kind - he had a large party of Americans last evening - and seems ready to entertain any who come I only arrived here on Saturday evening (April 29th) and until presented to the Queen, will not be fairly in the “London world.” My court-dress is now absorbing most of my attention, as I will be presented this day next week (11th). This is rather intense as I must act entirely for myself. . .I go to decide upon it today." she wrote her confidant Lilly on May 4th. Tomorrow and Saturday I go to dinner parties, and I suppose will be fairly launched in the gay world, after next week. I had a glimpse of the Queen yesterday - she held a Levee (gentleman alone) at St. James! Lady Owsley took me to the Park, where we had an excellent view of all the Royal procession - The Life-guards are splendid looking men - mounted upon black horses - the Queen’s band played - of course, I was very much entertained - but I could scarcely convince myself that it was the ruler of this great kingdom- approaching - the glitter was so great it appeared like a grand show. * I must write you, dear Lily, though, as yet I have not much of interest to relate, concerning myself. - I only arrived here on Saturday evening (April 29th) and until presented to the Queen, will not be fairly in the “London world.” Everything is as comfortable and agreeable as possible, about my home - all things promise to me a pleasant visit. Uncle met me on the Ship at Liverpool & is looking remarkably well, & in good spirits - is as kind and good as possible & decidedly the most elegant looking man I have seen since I left home. My court-dress is now absorbing most of my attention, as I will be presented this day week (11th). This is rather intense as I must act entirely for myself. . .I go to decide upon it today." Last evening we went to a Literary Club dinner - the ladies of course in the gallery. I was disappointed in the speaking - we had expected several distinguish speaker but only heard Lord Mahon, & Lord Stanley both men of talent. - Lord Mahon was the best speaker at the table - but he talked too much, and said to little. Lord Stanly talked a great deal, and said nothing. I was gratified to see the manner of conducting a public dinner here, but without doubt, our people are more prompt and eloquent - in fact, I have seen no improvements upon our country, except in servants, - here they are most respectful and respectable. Tonight I go to the Opera, with Mr Peabody and a party he has formed for me. He is a younger looking man than I had expected to see, & seems very good and kind hearted. Tomorrow and Saturday I go to dinner parties, and I suppose will be fairly launched in the gay world, after next week. "My court-dress is now absorbing MOST of my ATTENTION as I will be presented this day week (11th). This is rather intense as I must act entirely for myself. . .I go to decide upon it today." He made very particular inquires about your good Father. Tomorrow and Saturday I go to dinner parties, and I suppose will be fairly launched in the gay world, after next week. I had a glimpse of the Queen yesterday - she held a Levee (gentleman alone) at St. James! Lady Oasily took me to the Park, where we had an excellent view of all the Royal procession - The Life-guards are splendid looking men - mounted upon black horses - the Queen’s band played - of course, I was very much entertained - but I could scarely convince myself that it was the ruler of this great kingdom- approaching the glitter was so great it appeared like a grand show. From the carriage, she struck me as being handsome, but she is not generally considered so. Your friend Mr Corbon is here from Paris - his stay will be short - he is to be here this morning - unfortunately I will not see him, as I am obliged to go out. You know Mr Holford is dead. You have heard, dear Lily, of our long & boisterous voyage - a fortnight reaching London. - two weeks. I have not ceased to mourn over the pleasant evening, I with you all, I was deprived of, when first we started. Friday 5. I was charmed at the Opera last night. Beethoven’s Fidelio was the piece. I heard the great Cravelli, and think her superb - the music is grand & effective. Mr Peabody’s box is opposite the Queen’s - she, Prince Albert, & two of the children were there. Mr P. is very kind - he had a large party of Americans last evening - and seems ready to entertain any who come, give my warmest love to Dame Trip - tell her I read the little book every day, and think it sweet. I gaze upon my daguerre’s with much tenderness, and is the kindness which gave them. Uncle is laboriously occupied writing all the time - in fact, too much confined. I hope you have written me, dear Lily, ere this - I will have the blues, if every steamer does not bring me some affectionate effusion and could you know the value of a single line, when so far separated from every home association, I know you would write often. I sincerely hope you safely recovered from your cold. My love to Mr M. tell him the gingerbread was very acceptable. Love to grandma and Mrs [illegible name] - and do write me often, dear Lily - I hope my next letter will be more U. S. Legation, London. May 4. 1854. [cross-written in the top margin of the fist page] interesting for you. I have no doubt Uncle would send some message - but as the dispatch lay very close - I cannot wait for any tender words interesting as I know they would be to you. If you see Mrs Plitt tell her I am well - as I have not time to write her this mail. Love to every one & believe me ever dear Lily your sincerely affectionate Hattie Capt West is a glorious fellow - I [never met?] a more agreeable escort. [letter sent to Lily Macalester] Title: Letter from Harriet Lane to Lily Macalester Date: Thursday May 4, 1854 Location: I-Friends-2001-5 archives.dickinson.edu 9 September 2012 Web. 2 February 2020 archives.dickinson.edu/sites/all/files/files_document/I-F... archives.dickinson.edu 9 September 2012 Web. 2 February 2020 archives.dickinson.edu/archives-people/macalester-lily ** Because her uncle caused a stir the year before when he presented himself before the Houses of Parliament for wearing merely his black suit, Harriet prepared for her debut ** When May 11th came, Harriet stepped before the Queen and Prince Albert - likely wearing her domed and bell-shaped hoop skirt, supported by crinoline petticoats, with deep flounces or tiers, long bloomers and pantaloons trimmed with lace. With judging eyes all around, she descended gracefully in a low slow perfect bow before Victoria then, ascending back up. ***** Curtis, George T. (1883). "Life of James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States." New York, Harper & Brothers. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 archive.org/details/lifeofjamesbucha01curt/page/n8 frontispiece: Buchanan with signature archive.org/details/lifeofjamesbucha01curt/page/n7 ***** Photographic portrait of American journalist and author Mary Clemmer [Ames] Hudson (1831-1884). From American Women: Fifteen Hundred Biographies with Over 1,400 Portraits, Frances E. Willard and Mary A. Livermore, editors. Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick, 1897 (revised edition from 1893), vol. 1, p. 400 Capital, As a Women Sees Them." Hartford, CT: A.D. Worthington & Co. Grace, light and majestry seemed to make her atmosphere. Every motion was instinct with life, health and intelligence. Her superb physique gave theimpression of intense. harmonious vitalty. Her eyes of deep violet, shed a constant, steady light, yet they could flash with rebuke, kind kindle with humor,or soften in tenderness. Her mouth was most peculiarly beautiful feature, capable of expressing infinite humor of absolute sweetness, while her classic head was crowned with masses of golden hair, always worn with perfect simplicity. p. 233 books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 books.google.com/books?id=9tA9_FN5OTsC&pg=PA233&l... England April 1854 journals.psu.edu/phj/article/viewFile/22939/22708 * The Works of James Buchanan Comprising his Speeches, State Papers, and Private Correspondence. Collected and Edited By John Bassett Moore Vol. 9 (1853-1855) babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 5 January 2020 babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015009282529&vie... p. 151 to HL Feb 21, 1854 Acquaints geer witgh arrangements for ther trip to England p. 158 & 159 to HLJ p. 275 to HLJ Nov. 4, 1854 p. 310 January 20, 1855 advises HJ as to her visit to England p. 393 Aug. 20 & 23 1855 to HLJ p. 395 to HLJ Aug 28, 1855 advises on personal matters To Miss Lane, October 12 424 Comments on personal matters. To Miss Lane, October 19 426 back home Comments on personal matters. The Works of James Buchanan Comprising his Speeches, State Papers, and Private Correspondence. Collected and Edited By John Bassett Moore Vol. 10 (1856-1860). Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott Company. babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 5 January 2020 babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc2.ark:/13960/t15m6296v&a... * commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 5 January 2020 commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_%22Crystal_Palace%22_... 10 June – the Crystal Palace reopens in Sydenham, south London with life-size dinosaur models in the grounds. Title The "Crystal Palace" from the Great Exhibition, installed at The "Crystal Palace" from the Great Exhibition, installed at Sydenham: sculptures of prehistoric creatures in the foreground. Coloured photomechanical print, later than 1854?. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 5 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Palace_Dinosaurs * The poem was written after the Light Cavalry Brigade suffered great casualties in the Battle of Balaclava. Tennyson wrote the poem based on two articles published in The Times: the first, published on 13 November 1854, contained the sentence "The British soldier will do his duty, even to certain death, and is not paralyzed by the feeling that he is the victim of some hideous blunder," the last three words of which provided the inspiration for his phrase "Some one had blunder'd." The poem was written in a few minutes on December 2 of the same year, based on a recollection of The Times's account; Tennyson wrote other similar poems, like "Riflemen Form!", in a very similar manner. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 5 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Charge_of_the_Light_Brigade_(poem) * The Victoria & Albert Museum writes of 1850s women’s dress: “In the 1850s, women’s skirts were domed and bell-shaped, supported by crinoline petticoats. They often featured deep flounces or tiers. Long bloomers and pantaloons trimmed with lace were popular. Tiered cape-jackets were fashionable, as were paisley patterned shawls. Deep bonnets were worn and hair was swept into buns or side coils from a center parting.” Victorian Magazine summarizes women’s fashion of the 1850s, writing: “The mid-nineteenth century lady was a vision of elegance and grace in a beautiful Victorian dress lavishly trimmed with frills, flounces, lace, braid, fringe, ruche and ribbons. The fashion conscious Victorian lady created this appearance with a mysterious combination of the “uncomfortable and inconvenient” with the “frivolous and decorative.” Numerous heavy petticoats, layers of underclothes, a metal hoop skirt, tight corsets worn under-pointed boned bodices of whalebone and steel were hidden by an array of ornately accented undersleeves, collars, pelerines, fans, gloves, hats, and parasols. The finished look was of elegance and grace with an illusion of ease and comfort.” fashionhistory.fitnyc.edu/1850-1859/ Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805–1873) Blue pencil.svg wikidata:Q168659 Franz Xaver Winterhalter: The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting Title English: The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting Deutsch: Eugénie von Frankreich mit ihren Hofdamen Français : L'impératrice Eugénie entourée de ses dames d'honneur Object typepainting Genreportrait Description Français : Portrait collectif avec l'impératrice Eugénie de Montijo, la baronne de Pierres, la princesse d'Essling, la vicomtesse de Lezay-Marnésia, la marquise de Montebello, la duchesse de Bassano, la baronne de Malaret, la marquise de Las Marismas et la marquise de Latour-Maubourg Depicted people Eugénie de Montijo Pauline van der Linden d'Hooghvorst Date1855 Mediumoil on canvas DimensionsHeight: 300 cm (118.1 ″); Width: 420 cm (13.7 ft) CollectionMusée du Second Empire, Compiègne) commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 5 January 2020 commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winterhalter_Franz_Xavier... * The Illustrated London News 1855 www.iln.org.uk/iln_years/year/1855.htm jan-June 1855 Skating On The Grounds Of The Crystal Palace: Very Large Folding Illustration Arrival Of The Emperor And Empress Of The French At Windsor Castle, The Fountains At The Crystal Palace: * Life of James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States. Volume 2 By Curtis, George Ticknor books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 books.google.com/books?id=nSb7AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA147&l... p. 142 starts p. 147 Letter Friday July 13, 1855 p. 125 England is in a state of mourning for the loss of so many of her brave sons in the Crimea. The approaching "season" will, in consequence, be dull andthis I shall bear with Christian fortitude. The duller thebetter for me, but not so for Harriet. She has enjoyed herseflmvery much, and made many friends, but I do not see any bright prosepct of her marriage p. 147 commemoration loud cheers check with newspapers p. 152 Oct 1855 Harriet leainv Mrs Sturgis presenting with a watermelon p. 153. every one says nice things about harriet p. 155 Henry Bedinger Dutchess of Somerset p. 159 death of sister p. 168 JB leaving queen remember to HOLJ and Marquis of Lansdowne lay at her feet CHECK James Buchanan's letters and Time Lit-- London newspaper Alfred Tennyson -- degree mya 1855 see if JBmentions the cheer for harriet** London in May 1854 wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 5 January 2020 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854_in_the_United_Kingdom MISC BELOW newspapere headlines scann -- 1849 1850 silhouette ** There they would start each day at the breakfast table discussing the latest news over the tall pages of their open newspapers. Increasingly Nunc saw progress - much progress in his pygmalion niece. Once she was enrolled at the Visitation Academy School on the outskirts of Washington, he permitted her to join him at his F Street home for one weekend of each month, gradually exposing her to the social circles of the political elite. (1847-1849) visi.org www.visi.org/uploaded/About/Salesian_Center/Archives/RGII... visi.org www.visi.org/uploaded/About/Salesian_Center/Archives/RGII... visi.org www.visi.org/uploaded/About/Salesian_Center/Archives/RGII... ** DELETE so some of the servants ----indentured sevants 8:41 ** In 1848 James Buchanan purchased a wonderful estate called Wheatland JOURNAL ARTICLE Harriet Lane, First Lady: Hostess Extraordinary in Difficult Times Homer T. Rosenberger Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. Vol. 66/68, The 46th separately bound book (1966/1968), pp. 102-153 Published by: Historical Society of Washington, D.C. www.jstor.org/stable/40067251 Page Count: 52 www.jstor.org/stable/40067251?seq=1 ** Source of "Hal" nickname for Harriet Lane and "Nunc" for James Buchanan Unique among first ladies, Harriet Lane acted as hostess for the only president who never married. James Buchanan was her favorite uncle and her guardian after she was orphaned at the age of eleven. And of all the ladies of the White House, few achieved such great success in deeply troubled times as this polished young woman in her 20s. She was born in 1830 in the rich farming country of Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Her uncle supervised her sound education in private school, completed by two years at the Visitation Convent in Georgetown. By this time "Nunc" was secretary of state, and he introduced her to fashionable circles. In 1854 she joined him in London, where he was minister to the Court of St. James's. Queen Victoria gave "dear Miss Lane" the rank of ambassador's wife; admiring suitors gave her the fame of a beauty. "Hal" Lane enlivened social gatherings with a mixture of spontaneity and poise. After the sadness of the Pierce administration, the capital welcomed its "Democratic Queen" in 1857. Harriet Lane filled the White House with gaiety and flowers, and guided its social life with enthusiasm and discretion, winning national popularity. As sectional tensions increased, she sat formal dinner parties with care, giving dignitaries proper precedence while keeping political foes apart. Her task became impossible. Seven states had seceded by the time Buchanan retired from office. He thankfully returned with his niece to his spacious country home, Wheatland, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The popular Miss Lane flirted happily with numerous beaux, but waited until she was almost 36 to marry. Within the next 18 years she faced one sorrow after another: the loss of her uncle, her two fine young sons, and her husband. She decided to live in Washington, among friends made during happier years. She had acquired a sizable art collection, largely of European works, which she bequeathed to the government. Accepted after her death in 1903, it inspired an official of the Smithsonian Institution to call her the "First Lady of the National Collection of Fine Arts." Harriet also dedicated a generous sum to endow a home for invalid children at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. It became an outstanding pediatric facility, and its reputation is a fitting memorial to the young lady who presided at the White House with such dignity and charm. The Harriet Lane Outpatient Clinics serve thousands of children today. whitehousehistory.org 2 December 1998 Web. 15 January 2020 www.whitehousehistory.org/bios/harriet-lane (1). Sarah Polk portrait This oil on canvas painting of First Lady Sarah Polk was completed by artist George Dury in 1883, 34 years after President James Polk's term ended. Dury modeled his portrait after George P. A. Healy's 1846 portrait of Mrs. Polk. 2 December 1998 Web. 15 January 2020 www.whitehousehistory.org/photos/fotoware?id=0353A0262CD9... insert in 1848 To put it mildly, Washington was a tense place in April 1848, and it was about to get even more so. Enter the Pearl. blogs.weta.org/boundarystones/tags/1840s Goodrich, Samuel G. (Samuel Griswold), (1851). ""A pictorial history of America [electronic resource] : embracing both the northern and southern portions of the new world" babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 5 January 2020 babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=aeu.ark:/13960/t6931p10c&a... Image Engraving of Harriet Lane as First Lady as appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated weekly October, 1860. by Charles D. Fredricks Albumen silver print Image: 8.8 x 5.4 cm Mount: 10.2 x 6.1 cm 1985.1232.0001 collections.eastman.org 6 January 2017 Web. 5 January 2020 collections.eastman.org/objects/35142/harriet-lane?ctx=38... Harriet Lane polka by A. Allmuth. Philadelphia: Lee & Walker,  babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 5 January 2020 catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101809325 Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1820 to 1860 1840 to 1849 loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 5 January 2020 www.loc.gov/collections/american-sheet-music-1820-to-1860... pp. 149-168 (Plain text available) LETTERS Simple dress controversy: In Mr. Buchanan's case, "the simple dress of an American citizen" was an affair of very easy determination. He wore at all times the kind of dress in which his figure appears in the frontispiece of the present volume; and his personal dignity was quite sufficient to make that dress appropriate anywhere. Although he was a democrat of democrats, and cared little for show of any kind, he was accustomed to pay that deference to the usages of society which a gentleman is always anxious to observe, and to which no one knew better than he how to accommodate himself. He was the last man in the world to attach undue importance to trifles, and it may well be supposed he was annoyed, when he found rather suddenly that the circular of the Secretary was about to cause a serious difficulty in regard to his position at the British court. The first intimation he had of this difficulty is described in a despatch which he wrote to Mr. Marcy on the 28th of October. No. 13. Legation, Etc., London, October 28, 1853. Sir:— I deem it proper, however distasteful the subject may be, both to you and myself, to relate to you a conversation which I had on Tuesday last with Major-General Sir Edward Oust, the master of ceremonies at this court, concerning my court costume. I met him at the Traveller's Club, and after an introduction, your circular on this subject became the topic of conversation. He expressed much opposition to my appearance at court "in the simple dress of an American citizen." I said that such was the wish of my own Government and I intended to conform to it, unless the queen herself would intimate (108) her desire that I should appear in costume. In that event, I should feel inclined to comply with her majesty's wishes. He said that her majesty would not object to receive me at court in any dress I chose to put on; but whilst he had no authority to speak for her, he yet did not doubt it would be disagreeable to her if I did not conform to the established usage. He said I could not of course expect to be invited to court balls or court dinners where all appeared in costumes; that her majesty never invited the bishops to balls, not deeming it compatible with their character; but she invited them to concerts, and on these occasions, as a court dress was not required, I would also be invited. He grew warm by talking, and said that, whilst the queen herself would make no objections to my appearance at court in any dress I thought proper, yet the people of England would consider it presumption. I became somewhat indignant in my turn, and said that whilst I entertained the highest respect for her majesty, and desired to treat her with the deference which was eminently her due, yet it would not make the slightest difference to me, individually, whether I ever appeared at court. He stated that in this country an invitation from the queen was considered a command. I paid no attention to this remark, but observed that the rules of etiquette at the British court were more strict even than in Kussia. Senator Douglas of the United States had just returned from St. Petersburg. When invited to visit the czar in costume, he informed Count Nesselrode that he could not thus appear. The count asked him in what dress he appeared before the President of the United States. Mr. Douglas answered in the dress he then wore. The count, after consulting the emperor, said that was sufficient, and in this plain dress he visited the emperor at the palace and on parade, and had most agreeable conversations with him on both occasions. Sir Edward then expressed his gratification at having thus met me accidentally,—said he had just come to town for that day and should leave the next morning, but would soon do himself the honor of calling upon me. Although he disclaimed speaking by the authority of the queen, yet it appeared both to myself and Colonel Lawrence, who was present, that they must have had some conversation in the court circle on the subject. I entertain this belief the more firmly, as Sir Edward has since talked to a member of this legation in the same strain. So then, from present appearances, it is probable I shall be placed socially in Coventry on this question of dress, because it is certain that should her majesty not invite the American minister to her balls and dinners, he will not be invited to the balls and dinners of her courtiers. This will be to me, personally, a matter of not the least importance, but it may deprive me of the opportunity of cultivating friendly and social relations with the ministers and other courtiers which I might render available for the purpose of obtaining important information and promoting the success of my mission. I am exceedingly anxious to appear "at court in the simple dress of an American citizen;" and this not only because it accords with my own taste, (109) but because it is certain that if the minister to the court of St. James should appear in uniform, your circular will become a dead letter in regard to most, if not all, the other ministers and charge's of our country in Europe. The difficulty in the present case is greatly enhanced by the fact that the sovereign is a lady, and the devotion of her subjects towards her partakes of a mingled feeling of loyalty and gallantry. Any conduct, therefore, on my part which would look like disrespect towards her personally could not fail to give great offence to the British people. . . . James Buchanan to Harriet Lane Curtis, George T. (1883). "Life of James Buchanan: Fifteenth President of the United States, Volume 2." New York, NY: Harper Brothers. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 5 January 2020 pp. 107-109. books.google.com/books?pg=PA109&lpg=PA114&dq=Laur... More on simple dress controversy: early in February, (1854), Parliament was to be opened by the queen in person. Mr. Buchanan did not attend the ceremony; and thereupon there was an outery in the London press. The following extract from a despatch to Mr. Marcy gives a full account of the whole matter, up to the date: You will perceive by the London journals, the Times, the Morning Post, the News, the Morning Herald, the Spectator, the Examiner, Lloyd's, &c, &c., copies of which I send you, that my absence from the House of Lords, at the opening of Parliament, has produced quite a sensation. Indeed, I have found difficulty in preventing this incident from becoming a subject of inquiry and remark in the House of Commons. All this is peculiarly disagreeable to me, and has arisen entirely from an indiscreet and rather offensive remark of the London Times, in the account which that journal published of the proceedings at the opening of Parliament, But for this, the whole matter would probably have passed away quietly, as I had desired. pp. 110-111 James Buchanan to his niece Harriet as she prepares to come to England: London, December 9, 1853. Mr Dear Harriet:— I received your favor of the 14th ultimo in due time, and thank you for the information it contained, all of which was interesting to me. In regard to your coming to London with Colonel Lawrence and his lady, should he be married in February next, I have this to say: Your passage at that season of the year would, unless by a happy accident, be stormy and disagreeable, though not dangerous. I have scarcely yet recovered from the effects of the voyage, and should you be as bad a sailor as myself, and have a rough passage, it might give your constitution a shock. The month of April would be a much more agreeable period to cross the Atlantic; and you would still arrive here in time for the most fashionable and longer part of the fashionable season. The cholera epidemic in London: It is my duty to inform you that a general conviction prevails here, on the part of Lord Palmerston, the secretary of the interior, and the distinguished physicians, as well as among the intelligent people, that the cholera will be very bad in London and other parts of England during the latter part of the next summer and throughout the autumn. They are now making extensive preparations, and adopting extensive sanitary measures to render the mortality as small as possible. The London journals contain articles on the subject almost every day. Their reason for this conviction is,—that we have just had about as many cases of cholera during the past autumn, as there were during the autumn in a former year, preceding the season when it raged so extensively and violently. Now this question will be for your own consideration. I think it my duty to state the facts, and it will be for you to decide whether you will postpone your visit until the end of the next autumn for this reason, or at least until we shall see whether the gloomy anticipations here are likely to be realized. I still anticipate difficulty about my costume; but should this occur, it will probably continue throughout my mission. It is, therefore, no valid reason why you should postpone your visit. In that event you must be prepared to share my fate. So far as regards the consequences to myself, I do not care a button for them; but it would mortify me very much to see you treated differently from other ladies in your situation. If this costume affair should not prove an impediment, I feel that I shall get along very smoothly here. The fashionable world, with the exception of the high officials, are all out of London, and will remain absent until the last of February or beginning of March. I have recently been a good deal in the society of those who are now here, and they all seem disposed to treat me very kindly, especially the ladies. Their ho
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