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Monochrome, Hala Sultan Teke, Larnaca, Republic Of Cyprus.

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posted by DM PHOTOGRAPHY alias [email protected] on Tuesday 5th of October 2021 11:58:55 AM

Hala Sultan Tekke or the Mosque of Umm Haram (Greek: Τεκές Χαλά Σουλτάνας Tekés Chalá Soultánas; Turkish: Hala Sultan Tekkesi) is a mosque and tekke complex on the west bank of Larnaca Salt Lake, in Larnaca, Cyprus.[1] Umm Haram (Turkish: Hala Sultan) was the wife of Ubada bin al-Samit, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad,[2][3][4] and foster sister of Muhammad’s mother, Aminah bint Wahb.[5] Hala Sultan Tekke complex is composed of a mosque, mausoleum, minaret, cemetery, and living quarters for men and women. The term tekke (convent) applies to a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood, or tariqa, and may have referred to an earlier feature of the location. The present-day complex, open to all and not belonging to a single religious movement, lies in a serene setting on the shores of the Larnaca Salt Lake, which appears to be an important site also in prehistory. Hala Sultan Tekke is a listed Ancient Monument. History The site in prehistory During the second half of the second millennium B.C, the area of the Hala Sultan Tekke was used as a cemetery by the people who lived in an archaeological site known as Dromolaxia Vizatzia,[6] a large Late Bronze Age town a few hundred metres to the West. Originally identified as an archaeological site following looting in the 1890s, numerous tombs of Late Bronze Age date (around 1650-1100 BCE) with rich contents were excavated by the British Museum in 1897-1898 directed by Henry Beauchamp Walters and then John Winter Crowfoot; the finds were divided between the British Museum and the Cyprus Museum.[7] The contemporary settlement was identified by Swedish archaeologist Arne Furumark in 1947 and some preliminary excavations conducted by the Department of Antiquities.[8] A part of this town was excavated from the 1970s onwards by a Swedish archaeological mission led by Professor Paul Åström, and proved to be a major urban centre of Late Bronze Age Cyprus[9] The most recent excavations at Hala Sultan Tekke, The New Swedish Cyprus Expedition have been carried out by Professor Peter M. Fischer from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden (2010-2012- ...); see www.fischerarchaeology.se. The results of the excavations have been published annually in the journal Opuscula. Annual of the Swedish Institutes at Athens and Rome.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Radar surveys (2010-2012) have demonstrated that the city was one of the largest in the Late Bronze Age (roughly 1600-1100 BCE), maybe as large as 50 ha.[10][12] Another archaeological investigation conducted by the Department of Antiquities under the women's quarter of Hala Sultan Tekke have revealed building remains dated to the late Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods (6th - 1st century BC). Several finds indicate that the site might have been used as a sanctuary but the limited scale of the investigations precludes definite conclusions about its use.[citation needed] Hala Sultan Tekke Most accounts establish a connection between the site and the death of Umm Haram during the first Arab raids on Cyprus under the Caliph Muawiyah between 647 and 649, which were later pursued throughout the Umayyad and the Abbasid periods. According to these accounts, Umm Haram, being of very old age, had fallen from her mule and had died during a siege of Larnaca. She was later buried where she died. According to Shia belief, her grave lies within Jannatul Baqi cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.[20] During the Ottoman administration of Cyprus, a mosque complex was built in stages around the tomb. The tomb was discovered in the 18th century by the dervish called Sheikh Hasan, who also built the first structure here. Dervish Hasan managed to convince the administrative and religious authorities of the site's sacred nature and with the permission he received, he built the shrine around the tomb in 1760 and had it decorated. The wooden fences around the tomb would have been built by the 19th-century Ottoman governor in Cyprus, Seyyid Elhac Mehmed Agha, which were replaced by fences in bronze and two doors by his successor Acem Ali Agha. In another account, Giovanni Mariti, who visited Cyprus between 1760–1767, wrote that the shrine was built by the Cyprus governor he names as Ali Agha. According to Mariti, until 1760 they used the stones of a standing church in a ruined village nearby as construction materials.[21] In another source, it is mentioned that the construction of the mosque was initiated by the Cyprus governor Seyyid Mehmed Emin Efendi in classical Ottoman style, and it was completed in November 1817. The ancillary buildings have been repaired in 2004, and the mosque and the minaret are currently being restored. Both of these initiatives have been carried out with support from the Bi-communal Development Programme, which is funded from USAID and UNDP, and implemented through UNOPS.[22] Layout Hala Sultan Tekke Larnaca 5.JPG Above the entry gate to Tekke garden is an Ottoman inscription dated 4 March 1813. Sultan Mahmud II's monogram appears on both sides of the inscription and reads, "Hala Sultan Tekke was built by God's beloved great Ottoman Cyprus governor".[23] The garden itself was designed by a pasha and came to be known as "Pasha garden". The complex of buildings adjacent to the Tekke was known as "Gülşen-Feyz" (the rose garden of plenitude or of enlightenment). To the north (left) of the entrance there used to be a guesthouse for men. On the right side of the entrance, there was another guesthouse of which one block was reserved for men (Selamlik) and the other for women (Haremlik). It was a custom for visitors to take the oath of dedication to serve the Hala Sultan Tekke if their wishes were realized. The domed mosque is square-shaped with a balcony and was built in yellow stone blocks. The minaret was repaired in 1959. Umm Haram's tomb is located behind the mosque wall of the qibla (in the direction of Mecca). A further inscription dated 1760 is found here. Aside her, there are four other tombs, two of them former sheikhs. Another important tomb is a two-leveled marble sarcophagus, carrying the date 12 July 1929. The tomb belongs to Adile Hüseyin Ali, who was the Turkish wife of the Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca of the Hashemite House, himself a grandson of the Ottoman grand vizier Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha and a descendant of Muhammad. At the eastern corner of the mosque and the Tekke, there is a cemetery, which was closed to burials at around 1899. A number of past Turkish administrators are buried here. Opposite the mosque, there is an octagonal fountain, which was built around 1796-1797 by the then governor of Cyprus Silahtar Kaptanbaşı Mustafa Agha. The information on the construction is recorded on the marble inscription located on the fountain. On another inscription dated 1895, which was recently discovered in the Tekke's garden, it is written that the infrastructure for bringing in the water was built upon the instructions of the Sultan Abdülhamid II. Significance While being acknowledged as a holy site for Turkish Cypriot Muslims,[24][25][26] the mosque has also been described by secular contemporary sources as being revered by all Muslims.[27][28] In an assessment of the environmental and cultural assets of Cyprus, Professor George E. Bowen, a senior Fulbright scholar at the University of Tennessee, is quoted as referring to the Hala Sultan Tekke as the third holiest place for Muslims in the world.[29] This view has been echoed by other sources[30][31][32][33] including the United Nations Development Programme in Cyprus[34] and the Cypriot administration's Department of Antiquities.[35] Others describe the site as fourth most important in the Islamic world, after Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem.[36][37][38] As a result of the site being located in the Greek non-Muslim sector of the divided island, pilgrimage visits to the site are infrequent.[39] In addition to interventions at the imperial level and by high-ranking administrators for the maintenance and development of the complex, during the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman-flagged ships would hang their flags at half mast when off the shores of Larnaca, and salute Hala Sultan with cannon shots. Larnaca Salt Lake (Greek: Αλυκή Λάρνακας, Turkish: Larnaka Tuz Gölü) is a complex network of four salt lakes (3 of them interconnected) of different sizes to the west of the city of Larnaca. The largest is lake Aliki, followed by lake Orphani, lake Soros and lake Spiro.[3] They form the second largest salt lake in Cyprus after the Limassol Salt Lake. The total surface area of the lakes adds up to 2.2 km2 and being just off the road leading to Larnaca International Airport is one of the most distinctive landmarks of the area. It is considered one of the most important wetlands of Cyprus and it has been declared a Ramsar site, Natura 2000 site, Special Protected Area under the Barcelona Convention[4] and an Important Bird Area (IBA).[5] It is surrounded by halophytic scrubland and on its bank lies the Hala Sultan Tekke, one of the holiest of shrines within Ottoman Islam. It houses the tomb of Umm Haram, Muhammad's 'wet-nurse'. Besides its picturesque beauty, the lake is the haunt of 85 species of water-birds with estimated populations between 20,000–38,000.[citation needed] It is one of the important migratory passages through Cyprus. Among them are 2,000–12,000 flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus)[6] which spend the winter months there feeding off populations of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.[3] Other important bird species are Grus grus, Charadrius alexandrines, Larus ridibundus, Himantopus himantopus, Burhinus oedicnemus, Hoplopterus spinosus, Oenanthe cypriaca and Sylvia melanothorax.[citation needed] Flocks of birdwatchers gather to observe the blaze of pink from flamingoes as they gather in the centre of the lake but also the other important migrants. The Larnaca Salt Lake complex was declared as a protected area by a decision of the Council of Ministers in 1997.[7] Recent evidence suggests that contrary to previous belief the greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) not only stops over but also breeds on this wetland.[8] During the winter months the lake fills with water while in the summer the water evaporates, leaving a crust of salt and a haze of grey dust. According to legend, the lake's saltiness stems from St Lazarus' request of an old woman for food and drink. She refused, claiming her vines had dried up, to which Lazarus replied: "may your vines be dry and be a salt lake forever more."[9] A more scientific explanation is that the salt water penetrates the porous rock between the lake and the sea, making the water very salty.[citation needed] Salt harvested from this lake used to be one of the island's major exports, being collected with donkeys, carried to the edge of the lake, and piled up into huge pyramidal heaps. With rising labour costs harvesting dwindled to a negligible amount and stopped altogether in 1986[3] as the island now imports most of this commodity. Larnaca (Greek: Λάρνακα [ˈlarnaka]; Turkish: Larnaka) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015.[2] Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront also called Foinikoudes as well as the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, and Larnaca Castle. It is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, which was the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to the country's primary airport, Larnaca International Airport. It also has a seaport and a marina. Etymology The word Larnaca derives from the Greek n. larnax, meaning: "coffer", "box", "chest", e.g. for household stores, "cinerary urn", "sarcophagus" or "coffin"; "drinking trough" and "chalice". An informal etymology, attributes the origin of the name to (sarcophagi) that were found in the area.[3] Sophocles Hadjisavvas, a state archeologist, states that "[the city's U.S.] consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town".[4] In the vernacular, Larnaca is also known as Scala (Greek: Σκάλα [ˈskala] from the word (Greek: σκάλα [ˈskala] a loanword from the Italian scala). During the Middle Ages, until the end of the 18th century, a small port-anchorage close to Larnaca Bay is referred to on maps, engravings, in travel descriptions and documents as Scala di Saline and may account for this second name; other names that appear on maps are include: Porto delle Salines, Rada delle Saline, Ponta delle Saline, Punta delle Salino, Golfo delle Saline, Port Salines, Selines, Salines, Le Seline, Le Salline, Saline, Salin, Salinas, Arnicho di Salinas, Port of Lazarus, Lazare [o], Marine, Marina, Commercio [customs]. The former city-kingdom of Kition was originally established in the 13th century BC.[5] New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC (personal objects, pottery, new architectural forms and ideas) are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition.[6] Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area. At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture. The remains of the sites include cyclopean walls and a complex of five temples and a naval port. It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire, then by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Persian or Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus. On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both their allies and the Persians. Strong[7] earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after. Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but also of Salamis and Pafos".[7] Kition's harbor silted up, and the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this. (Contributing factors to the silting are thought to have been earthquakes, deforestation and overgrazing.) The commercial port was located at Skala, during the Ottoman Period. Skala is the name of the seashore immediately south of the Larnaca castle[8]—and its neighborhood. The city is sometimes colloquially referred to as[citation needed] "Skala" (Greek: Σκάλα) meaning "ladder" or "landing stage", referring to the historical port. The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city. Geography The Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It usually dries up in the summer. In the past,[when?] it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface. The salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption. Climate The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) due to its low annual rainfall and hot summer temperatures resulting in highly negative water balance. It is sometimes described as a mediterranean climate due to the pronounced rainy season in winter and virtually rainless summers, but this winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification. The city's landmarks include: the Church of Saint Lazarus; the Catacomb of Phaneromeni Church; Hala Sultan Tekke; the Kamares Aqueduct; and the Fort of Larnaca. So-called "Foinikoudes" is the promenade along Athenon Avenue on the seafront. A row of palm trees (Cypriot Greek: φοινικούδες foinikoudes) lines either side of it. A bust of "Kimon the Athenian" stands on the Foinikoudes Promenade, with this quote referring to him on the pedestal: "Even in death he was victorious" (Greek: "Kαι νεκρός ενίκα"). The marble bust of Zeno stands at the crossroads near the American Academy. Zeno was born in Kition in 334 BC. After studying philosophy in Athens, he founded the famous Stoic school of philosophy. The Armenian Genocide Memorial stands on Athinon Avenue. Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975,[citation needed] after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, and the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had increasingly important roles in the economy of the island. A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed. The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labour force.[citation needed] Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have a head office Larnaca. There are over a hundred educational institutions in the city,[citation needed] including the American Academy, Larnaca Nareg Armenian school and the Alexander College. Culture Arts Larnaca has a theatre and an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality. The Cornaro Institute was a cultural centre founded by the celebrated Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos in the Old Town in 2007, which staged contemporary art exhibitions and other cultural events, prior to its closure by Larnaca Municipality in 2017. Local institutions include the Municipal Wind Orchestra. Sports Local teams include (football:) AEK Larnaca FC and ALKI Larnaca FC. Due to the Turkish occupation of Famagusta, the two teams of Famagusta, Anorthosis and Nea Salamina, are located here. Local sports arenas include AEK Arena - Georgios Karapatakis, GSZ Stadium, "Antonis Papadopoulos" and "Ammochostos". International competitions held in the city, include the Larnaka International Marathon since 2017, the Shooting Shotgun European Championships in 2012, the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH Youth World Championship in 2012, the European Under-19 Football Championship final in 1998 and the European Under-17 Football Championship final in 1992. Larnaca attracts windsurfers from around the world especially in autumn. Mackenzie Beach hosts windsurfing centre together with an extreme sports centre. Festivals Much of the activity is centered on the city promenade during the major festivals. The most important of these is Kataklysmos or the Festival of the Flood, celebrated in early summer with a series of cultural events. The festival used to last for about a week, but, in recent years, with the increased commercialism of peripheral stalls, rides and temporary Loukoumades restaurants, the festival has been extended to about three weeks, during which the seafront is closed to traffic in the evenings. Museums Museums found in Larnaca include the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum, Pierides Museum, Agios Lazaros Byzantine Museum, Kallinikeio Municipal Museum of Athienou, Larnaca Medieval Museum, Larnaca Municipal Museum of Natural History, Larnaca Municipal Historical Archives - Museum of Larnaca, Folklore Museum ‘Kostas Kaimakliotis’ - Aradippou, Theasis Museum and Kyriazis Medical Museum. Cuisine The beaches of Larnaca are lined with nearly identical seafood restaurants catering to tourists. Although there are many continental and international restaurants in Larnaca, visitors do not miss out on indulging in the local food. Many of the staple dishes involve beans, such as fasolaki (French beans cooked in red wine with lamb), and louvi me lahana (black-eyed peas with chard). Some of the standard appetizers are potato salad, kohlrabi salad, and hot grilled black olives. The next course may include Cyprus village sausage and sheftalia, dolmades and keftedes, kolokassi in tomato sauce, and several aubergine-based dishes. Baked or grilled lamb (souvla) usually appears somewhere in the course of dining, as does some kind of fish. Neighborhoods Larnaca's neighborhoods include Skala, Prodromos, Faneromeni, Drosia, Kamares, Vergina and Agioi Anargyroi. Public transport Public transport in Larnaca is served only by buses. Bus routes and timetables can be found here. Notable residents Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BC), Stoic philosopher Apollonios of Kition (1st century BC), physician, nicknamed "the Cypriot Hippocrates" Ebubekir Pasha (1670 – 1757/1758), Governor of Larnaca and philanthropist Demetrios Pieridis (1811–1895), founder of the Pieridis Museum Dimitris Lipertis (1866–1937), national poet Neoclis Kyriazis (1877–1956), medical doctor and historian Mehmet Nazim Adil (1922–2014), leader of the Nakshbandi Sufi order (or Tekke), born in Larnaca Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Cypriot-American academic, entrepreneur, and past-president of the Biomedical Engineering Society Stass Paraskos, artist Mihalis Violaris, singer and composer who helped popularise Cypriot music in Greece Giorgos Theofanous, composer Anna Vissi, singer Loucas Yiorkas, singer, The X Factor winner in 2009 Ada Nicodemou, actress Garo Yepremian, Armenian-Cypriot former NFL placekicker, played as a member of the 1972 Miami Dolphins, to date the only team in NFL history to finish with a perfect record Chrystalleni Trikomiti, Commonwealth Games gold-medalist rhythmic gymnast Martino Tirimo, Cypriot classical pianist



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